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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2278: Design and Validation of an FPGA-Based Configurable Transcranial Doppler Neurofeedback System for Chronic Pain Patients Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072278 Authors: Beatriz Rey Alejandro Rodríguez Enrique Lloréns-Bufort José Tembl Miguel Ángel Muñoz Pedro Montoya Vicente Herrero-Bosch Jose M. Monzo Neurofeedback is a self-regulation technique that can be applied to learn to voluntarily control cerebral activity in specific brain regions. In this work, a Transcranial Doppler-based configurable neurofeedback system is proposed and described. The hardware configuration is based on the Red Pitaya board, which gives great flexibility and processing power to the system. The parameter to be trained can be selected between several temporal, spectral, or complexity features from the cerebral blood flow velocity signal in different vessels. As previous studies have found alterations in these parameters in chronic pain patients, the system could be applied to help them to voluntarily control these parameters. Two protocols based on different temporal lengths of the training periods have been proposed and tested with six healthy subjects that were randomly assigned to one of the protocols at the beginning of the procedure. For the purposes of the testing, the trained parameter was the mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the aggregated data from the two anterior cerebral arteries. Results show that, using the proposed neurofeedback system, the two groups of healthy volunteers can learn to self-regulate a parameter from their brain activity in a reduced number of training sessions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 863: Single-Step Incubation Determination of miRNAs in Cancer Cells Using an Amperometric Biosensor Based on Competitive Hybridization onto Magnetic Beads Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030863 Authors: Eva Vargas Eloy Povedano Víctor Montiel Rebeca Torrente-Rodríguez Mohamed Zouari Juan Montoya Noureddine Raouafi Susana Campuzano José Pingarrón This work reports an amperometric biosensor for the determination of miRNA-21, a relevant oncogene. The methodology involves a competitive DNA-target miRNA hybridization assay performed on the surface of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and amperometric transduction at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The target miRNA competes with a synthetic fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-modified miRNA with an identical sequence for hybridization with a biotinylated and complementary DNA probe (b-Cp) immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-modified MBs (b-Cp-MBs). Upon labeling, the FITC-modified miRNA attached to the MBs with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-FITC Fab fragments and magnetic capturing of the MBs onto the working electrode surface of SPCEs. The cathodic current measured at −0.20 V (versus the Ag pseudo-reference electrode) was demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the target miRNA. This convenient biosensing method provided a linear range between 0.7 and 10.0 nM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 nM (5 fmol in 25 μL of sample) for the synthetic target miRNA without any amplification step. An acceptable selectivity towards single-base mismatched oligonucleotides, a high storage stability of the b-Cp-MBs, and usefulness for the accurate determination of miRNA-21 in raw total RNA (RNAt) extracted from breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were demonstrated.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 690: Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Acoustic Environments with Binaural Psycho-Acoustical Considerations for IoT-Based Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030690 Authors: Jaume Segura-Garcia Juan Navarro-Ruiz Juan Perez-Solano Jose Montoya-Belmonte Santiago Felici-Castell Maximo Cobos Ana Torres-Aranda Sound pleasantness or annoyance perceived in urban soundscapes is a major concern in environmental acoustics. Binaural psychoacoustic parameters are helpful to describe generic acoustic environments, as it is stated within the ISO 12913 framework. In this paper, the application of a Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network (WASN) to evaluate the spatial distribution and the evolution of urban acoustic environments is described. Two experiments are presented using an indoor and an outdoor deployment of a WASN with several nodes using an Internet of Things (IoT) environment to collect audio data and calculate meaningful parameters such as the sound pressure level, binaural loudness and binaural sharpness. A chunk of audio is recorded in each node periodically with a microphone array and the binaural rendering is conducted by exploiting the estimated directional characteristics of the incoming sound by means of DOA estimation. Each node computes the parameters in a different location and sends the values to a cloud-based broker structure that allows spatial statistical analysis through Kriging techniques. A cross-validation analysis is also performed to confirm the usefulness of the proposed system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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