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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (2)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers  (1)
  • 2000-2004  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of exogenous recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) on the endogenous cerebral plasminogen–plasmin system in focal ischemia in rats. Ischemia was induced using the suture model. Each group of rats (n = 6) received either treatment (0.9, 9 or 18 mg rt-PA/kg body weight) or saline (control group) at the end of ischemia; a sham-operated group was added. The activity of the plasminogen activators was measured by casein-dependent plasminogen zymography. In the cortex urokinase (u-PA) rose from sham (no ischemia), 91 ± 7% to ischemia, 176 ± 10% (P 〈 0.005). Increasing rt-PA doses led to further significant (P 〈 0.001) cortical u-PA activation which was maximal at 18 mg: 249 ± 13%. An extreme increase in the u-PA activity was observed in the basal ganglia to 1019 ± 22% (P 〈 0.001). This increase was further aggravated by higher rt-PA doses (18 mg, 1236 ± 15%; P 〈 0.001). The t-PA level did not change I3R24 during (3 h ischemia followed by reperfusion for 24 h); however, during low and moderate doses of rt-PA, endogenous t-PA was reduced. In conclusion, while ischemia leads to a significant increase in u-PA, mainly in the basal ganglia, t-PA is not altered. Increasing doses of rt-PA lead to a further elevation of u-PA. Thus, u-PA seems to play a major role in the endogenous plasminogen activator system following focal cerebral ischemia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive a synaptic input from a single giant calyx terminal that generates a fast-rising, large excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC), each of which are supra-threshold for postsynaptic action potential generation. Here, we present evidence that MNTB principal neurons receive multiple excitatory synaptic inputs generating slow-rising, small EPSCs that are also capable of triggering postsynaptic action potentials but are of non-calyceal origin. Both calyceal and non-calyceal EPSCs are mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation; however, the NMDA receptor-mediated response is proportionally larger at the non-calyceal synapses. Non-calyceal synapses generate action potentials in MNTB principal neurons with a longer latency and a lower reliability than the large calyceal input. They constitute an alternative low fidelity synaptic input to the fast and secure relay transmission via the calyx of Held synapse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To explore aspects of cellular immune responses in the pathogenesis of periodontitis we analyzed phenotype and function of peripheral T cells. Two groups of subjects participated: one group consisted of 10 highly susceptible patients with severe periodontitis (mean age 29 years) and a control group consisted of 10 age, gender and race matched subjects with gingivitis. From all subjects peripheral blood was collected. The results showed that the numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the proliferative capacity of T cells, were not different between the two groups of subjects. Also, proportions of naive and memory T cells for both the CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were not different. Functional heterogeneity within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments was determined by intracellular analysis of interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. On the basis of these latter analyses among CD4+ and CD8+ cells, T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 function and T cytotoxic (Tc) 1 or Tc2 function, respectively, could be deduced. No significant differences in proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells positive for intracellular IFN-γ or IL-4 were observed between periodontitis patients and gingivitis controls; however a higher level of intracellular IL-4 in CD8+ T cells was seen in periodontitis patients. This might indicate that there is a shift towards a Tc2 function within the CD8+ T cell subpopulation. The current explorative study suggests that further research into the role of CD8+T cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is warranted.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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