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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Experimental dermatology 12 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrhoic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Intrathymic T cell development represents one of the best studied paradigms of mammalian development. Lymphoid committed precursors enter the thymus and the Notch1 receptor plays an essential role in committing them to the T cell lineages. The pre-T cell receptor (TCR), as an autonomous cell signaling receptor, commits cells to the αβ lineage while its rival, the γδTCR, is involved in generating the γδ lineage of T cells. Positive and negative selection of immature αβTCR-expressing cells are essential mechanisms for generating mature T cells, committing them to the CD4 and CD8 lineages and avoiding autoimmunity. Additional lineages of αβT cells, such as the natural killer T cell lineage and the CD25+ regulatory T cell lineage, are formed when the αβTCR encounters specific ligands in suitable microenvironments. Thus, positive selection and receptor-instructed lineage commitment represent a hallmark of the thymus. Ectopically expressed organ-specific antigens contribute to thymic self–nonself discrimination, which represents an essential feature for the evolutionary fitness of mammalian species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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