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  • Munksgaard International Publishers  (4)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 7 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Measured emissions from building materials (Part I, Nielsen et al., 1996), were evaluated for their sensory effects, odour and irritation, as well as for health effects. The procedures adopted are general. First, if established indoor air standards or guidelines are available, they are to be preferred for the evaluations. Second, if they are not available, odour and irritation thresholds are used. The occupational exposure limits may be used for the evaluation of health effects if applying an additional safety factor between 4 and 40. The actual value depends on the critical effect, but a safety factor of 40 is proposed as a first approximation. Other values must be justified. Third, if occupational exposure limits are not available, two different procedures provide a tentative standard or guideline on the basis of published literature, which of necessity must therefore be collected and evaluated. One procedure estimates the standard from an effect in animals and applies a number of safety factors (each often equal to 10), corresponding to a series of worst-case assumptions. The other procedure evaluates the critical effect and uses fewer specific safety factors to predict the human no-observed-effect level (NOEL). The political safety factor is then determined, i.e. how far below the NOEL the standard or guideline level should be set. The last-mentioned procedure gives a logical concordant system, explaining why different standards or guidelines may be set for outdoor, indoor and occupational exposures, and why exposures exceeding a standard or a guideline need not cause health effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The impact on air quality of the emission of pollutants from freshly conditioned sealant and waterborne paint, and a new carpet was investigated by means of a closed emission system and a high loading factor, i.e. “maximized” test conditions. VOCs were measured. Speciated TVOC values obtained by summation of single VOCs and TVOC (cyclohexane equivalents) values determined by IR spectroscopy were of the same order of magnitude for the carpet and for the sealant. Biological evaluation of the effects of the VOCs was undertaken from the concentrations and the odour and irritation thresholds of each substance. The overall agreements and the mutual supplementation of the results from the TVOC and biological evaluations were apparent, suggesting that both approaches should be part of the evaluation of emissions from building materials. Also the mouse bioassay (ASTM, 1984) was used for evaluation of the irritants emitted. Chemical emission testing and the use of established lists of irritation thresholds appear to be more cost-effective, due to the low sensitivity of the bioassay. This approach was demonstrated with 2-butanone oxime (emitted from the sealant). The same type of approach may be used in relation to odour and hazard identification. However, human and animal tests are necessary in cases where biological data are lacking or where the chemical emission is unknown.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Initation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (sensory irritation) in man due to the emission of vapours and gases from water-based indoor paints has been estimated from their ability to decrease the respiratory rate in mice (ASTM: E981-84, slightly modified). An acid-curing lacquer, known to give rise to sensory irritation during occupational exposure, was used as the positive control. In the bioassay the and-curing lacquer also gave rise to a pronounced sensory irritation, confirming that the ASTM method was applicable. Furthermore, the emission of formaldehyde, bases and acids was determined. The irritation within the first week was mainly due to the emission of organic solvents, but formaldehyde also played a role. Later the sensory irritation effect was caused mainly by the emission of formaldehyde. This indicates that the method revealed the different emission phases. None of the water-based paints (3 latex wall paints, 1 silicate paint and 1 distemper) gave rise to a biologically significant irritation effect. Nor did the water-based products emit formaldehyde or acids. However, varying degrees of emission of ammonia were observed. Taking into account the biological detection limits, no significant degree of sensory irritation can be expected in man 1-2 weeks after indoor painting with the tested water-based products.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 7 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A fibrous acoustic insulation material was examined for the emission of chemicals. The material was studied also in relation to humans for odorous properties and irritation of nose and throat. Finally, sensory irritation of the upper airways was investigated using a mouse bioassay. Emission of TVOC was equal to or less than 0.036 mg/(m2.h). A small amount of base was also emitted (∼0.003 mg/(m2.h) NH3). No emissions of acids and formaldehyde were found. The odour intensity was judged by a panel as “slight” at a loading ratio 10 times higher than that in buildings. Here, the percentage of dissatisfied participants was 25. If nose irritation occurred at all, it was far below “slight irritation” even at a loading 30 times that in buildings. No throat irritation was found. No sensory irritation was detected with the mouse bioassay. From the testing and extrapolation to the normal load of the material in buildings, it may be concluded that the material does not produce any biologically significant emission of volatile compounds to indoor air. The results suggest that the effect of other low-emitting materials on indoor air may also be estimated from the combination of simple chemical, human and animal screening tests.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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