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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study aims at evaluating an objective method for the description of bone structure in the human mandible. Human bone biopsies were harvested at mandibular implant sites prior to insertion of self-tapping Mark II fixtures. Altogether 15 biopsies were taken from 12 patients. Three patients donated 2 biopsies each, one proximally and one distally taken. Ground sections of about 100μm thickness were prepared prior to microradiography. These sections were ground to a final thickness of about 10μm followed by histological staining. Histomorphometrical analyses were performed on the microradiographed plates and on the ground sections. On average there was a bone area of about 54% calculated on the microradiographed plates (the 100-μm sections) versus a mean bone area of 62% light microscopically (the 10-μm sections). Bone lengths were calculated on the 10-μm sections in the central part (mid-line) and on each side of the mid-line, revealing a mean of 58% in the former case and a mean of 61% in the latter case. The amount of bone varied between individuals and in different locations of the same jaw. The postoperative healing period following fixture installation is standardized regardless of bone structure. It may in the future be appropriate to more individualize this healing period based on an objective bone quality score.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This investigation was performed to assess the bone-to-implant surface contact at fixtures of titanium that either had a standard machine prepared or a TiO2-blasted surface. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiment. Extractions of the premolars were performed in the maxilla. After 4 months of healing, 5 standard machine-prepared fixtures and 5 prepared according to the TioBlast technique were inserted. Two months later another 5 “standard” and 5 TiO Blast-prepared implants were inserted. Four months after the first fixture installation, the animals were killed and ground sections prepared from each implant site. Of the 20 implants installed, 19 were successfully incorporated. The mean bone-to-implant surface for “standard” fixtures was about 40% both at the 2 and 4 months observation interval. The corresponding figures for the TiO Blast-prepared fixtures were similar during the first 2 months of observation, while subsequently the TioBlast-prepared fixture surface seemed to stimulate to a more close bone-to-implant contact (65%) than the “standard” one.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim: The aim of present study was to evaluate if an enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) may enhance bone formation and osseointegration of titanium implants, using a well-documented rabbit model.Material and methods: Thirty-six threaded commercially pure titanium (cp.ti.) implants were inserted in six New Zealand white rabbits. One implant was placed in each femur and two in each tibia. Prior to implant insertion approximately 0.5 mL of Emdogain (EMD) (test) or the vehicle gel (PGA: propylene glycol alginate) (control) was injected into the surgically prepared implant site. The follow-up time was 6 weeks. Biomechanical evaluations by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and removal torque measurements (RTQ) were performed. Histomorphometrical quantifications were made on ground sections by measurements of the percentage of bone-to-metal contact, bone area inside the threads as well as outside the threads (mirror image). Bone lengths along the implant surface were also measured and used for shear strength calculations.Results: The results demonstrated no beneficial effects from the EMD treatment on bone formation around titanium implants in any of the tested parameters. Significant differences were demonstrated with removal torque test and shear force calculations for the control implants. No other parameter demonstrated a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: The results of the present study may indicate that EMD does not contribute to bone formation around titanium implants. This observation may indicate that the bone formation that occurs after EMD treatment in periodontal defects is the result of functional adaptation. However, further research is required to evaluate the effect of EMD treatment on bone formation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of these animal experiments was to characterize and evaluate the healing-in of root analogue titanium implants fitting with high precision to the alveolar wall. Four beagle dogs were used in the study. The roots of the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars in both quadrants of 3 dogs and in 1 quadrant of 1 dog (dog 4) were extracted after hemisection. Each root was machine-copied to 1 titanium analogue. In dog 4, however, 2 titanium analogues were fabricated from each of the 4 extracted roots. This enabled insertion of analogues also into the contralateral sockets obtained by extraction of the corresponding roots immediately before implant installation, which was undertaken 2 weeks after the first extractions. Thus, in all, 32 analogues were implanted in their respective (or contralateral) sockets following ridge incision and elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps. The analogues were carefully covered by the repositioned flaps. In dog 4, 2 analogues from the immediate sockets and 2 from the 2-week sockets were surgically exposed and supplied with titanium crowns after a healing period of 2 months. The healing after implantation was evaluated by clinical, radiographic and histological measures after 2, 12 or 36 months. Two analogues (6%) were lost due to early (during the 1st week) exposure to the oral cavity. Another 2 analogues (6%) were, although not exposed, encapsulated by soft tissue and were easily removed with a surgical forceps. Twenty-eight analogues (88%) were healed-in by contact between bone and implant (osseointegration). The mean percentages of bone tissue in contact with the implant of such analogues were 30.5% after 2 months, 64.8% after 12 months and 68.1% after 36 months, as evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. The 4 analogues supplied with titanium crowns carried those with maintained bone anchorage throughout an experimental period of 36 months. The character of the interface between the analogue and the surrounding bone tissue was the same regardless of whether the implantation was performed immediately 1 or 2 weeks after extraction of the roots.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Bone augmentation around implant fixtures using the technique of guided tissue regeneration has been described in a number of reports. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone fill around dehiscence defects at matched defects randomly allocated to test (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene; Gore-Tex) or control treatments within the same patient. Six edentulous subjects were treated with overdentures supported by 2 fixtures ad modum Brinemark. In addition, 2 experimental 7 mm fixtures with nearly identical dehiscence defects on the labial aspect were placed in the anterior part of the mandible. Baseline defect heights ranged from 2.5 to 4.0 mm with 2 to 4 threads exposed. The test fixture dehiscence was covered with a Gore-Tex membrane secured with a cover screw. The experimental fixtures were exposed after 5 months at stage 2 surgery and measurements and photographs repeated. The fixtures were then removed with a trephine and processed for histological evaluation. Regeneration of a hard tissue resembling bone was observed in 4 of 6 cases treated with Gore-Tex, amounting to between 95 and 100% elimination of the dehiscence and total coverage of the threads. However, in one of these cases, histological evaluation showed that it was soft tissue and not bone, and in a further case soft tissue regeneration was apparent both clinically and histologically. In another case there was no significant regeneration at either test or control defects. Although there was a trend for the Gore-Tex treated dehiscences to respond more favourably, the differences in clinical and histological measurements between test and control failed to reach statistical significance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Screw-shaped commercially pure (c.p.) niobium and c.p. titanium implants were inserted in rabbit bone. After a healing period of 3 months, a significantly higher removal torque was demonstrated to unscrew the niobium implants (average 32.9 Ncm) compared to the c.p. titanium implants (average 25.3 Ncm). In the histomorphometric part of the study, there were no significant differences in bone-to-metal contact between the 2 implant materials. An average of 41.1% bony contact was demonstrated for the niobium screws compared to an average of 37.2% for the c.p. titanium ones. Our removal torque findings could be related to the differences that we observed between the 2 implant surfaces as indicated by SEM. Since niobium implants showed a more irregular surface topography and niobium is a softer metal than c.p. titanium, this seems the most probable reason for the differences observed in removal torque between the 2 metals. Hypothetically, a more “positive biocom-patibility” of the c.p. niobium in comparison to the c.p. titanium remains as another possible reason for the observed differences. However, against such a difference in biocompatibility between c.p. niobium and c.p. titanium, there is the very similar amount of bony contact registered 1 in the histomorphometric analysis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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