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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Three different probing devices (Audio-Probe®, Florida-Probe®, Peri-Probe®) were tested in order to determine the clinical probing depth (CPD) around clinically stable oral implants and their homologous teeth and to evaluate their reproducibility. In all 37 patients. in the age range of 24–80 years, who had undergone periodontal therapy and placement of 1 or more oral implants (ITI®), were selected for the study. The CPD was determined on 75 oral implants in total and at 4 sites of both the implants and the control teeth at 3 visits, each 1 week apart. At the 1st visit, the Florida-Probe® and the Audio-Probe® were used. At the 2nd visit, the Florida-Probe® and the Peri-Probe® and, at the 3rd visit, again, the Florida-Probe® and the Audio-Probe® were used. At each visit bleeding on probing (BOP) was registered. A statistically significant (P〈0.05) difference between the mean scores of implant and tooth sites was found showing slightly higher values for implant sites. A tendency for the deeper pockets to bleed more frequently than the shallow pockets was observed. The comparisons of differences of the readings of the Audio-Probe® on 2 different occasions were smaller than for the Florida-Probe®. However, comparisons between 2 different probes showed significantly greater measurement errors than when comparing the probes alone. There was a tendency for the Peri-Probe® to yield the highest and the Audio-Probe® the lowest values in inflamed sites. It was concluded that all 3 probing devices appeared to have adequate reproducibility both around teeth and oral implants. For clinical use in daily practice, the Audio-Probe® was found to be the most simple device with the highest 1 reproducibility.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to determine the threshold of tactile perception of endosseous dental implants and to assess the relative difference of that threshold between implants and teeth. Twenty-two subjects with implants of the ITI® Dental Implant System were included in the study. All implants served as abutments for single tooth crowns and had been in function for a minimum of 1 year. A strain gauge glued to the shaft of an amalgam plugger served as a force sensor. It transformed the elastic deformation exerted onto the shaft into an electronic signal for recording. By use of the amalgam plugger, a continuously increasing force was exercised on the implants or teeth until the first sensation of touch was indicated by the patient. Statistical analysis revealed threshold values for the implants ranging from 13.2 to 189.4g (1g=0.0lN)(mean 100.6; SD 47.7), while a range of 1.2 to 26.2g (mean 11.5; SD 11.5) was found for control teeth. Thus, the mean threshold values for implants were 8.75 times higher than for teeth. This difference was highly statistically significant. A general linear models procedure was applied to determine the influence of patient age, jaw, implant position and the threshold values of teeth on the measurements obtained for implants. Only gender and the threshold values for contralateral teeth had a significant influence. These 2 parameters together explained 27% of the variability in threshold measurements. It is concluded that a more than 8-fold higher threshold value for tactile perception exists for implants compared with teeth.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Different studies have shown that various substances may have an influence on early human dental plaque formation. The purpose of the present study was to compare on tooth substances and supporting prosthetic materials the amount of plaque deposition by SEM and the quantity of selected bacteria using anaerobic culturing techniques. 5 bridges, replacing a missing molar or premolar, were incorporated in 3 patients. In the midbuccal area of each pontic, a semi-precision attachment was placed allowing the insertion of the following test facings: enamel, dentine, non γ2-amalgam, alloys of 85% and 55% gold, silver-palladium, chrome-cobalt, chrome-cobalttitanium, and ceramic. For each material, 2 facings were fabricated. After 4 and 24 hours in situ, bacteriological samples were taken and processed for further identification. After a 2nd period of 4 and 24 hours in situ, the same facings were carefully removed and prepared for SEM-examination. All 4-hour specimens exhibited various areas covered by plaque, the amount of which varied with the different supporting substances. The very smooth surfaces (e.g., gold) harbored sparse deposits, while the rougher (e.g., amalgam) were covered by more plaque. After 24 hours of plaque development, an increase in the number of micro-organisms was noted for all the specimens. After 4 and 24 hours of plaque accumulation, no specific trends suggesting a preferential colonization on the different substances were observed. This study has shown that the amount of early deposits on different substances seems to be related to the degree of their surface roughness, while plaque formation was qualitatively similar.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The aim of this prospective study was to document radiographically tissue remodeling patterns around ITI® implants placed according to an osteotome technique. In 19 consecutive patients from a private practice, 25 implants of the ITI® Dental Implant System were placed subjacent to the sinus floor. Implant beds were pre-prepared with pilot drills and/or using the Summers Osteotome Kit®. Bio Oss® particles were mixed with autologous bone and inserted into the apex area. Implants were placed self-tapping. The sinus floors were thereby pushed up with attempts not to sever the Schneiderian membrane. Healing occurred submerged or semi-submerged and was uneventful in 24/25 implants. At 1 year, all implants had been restored with crowns or short fixed partial dentures. One implant was lost in the first 3 weeks, but was replaced 6 months later in a second attempt. Intraoral radiographs were obtained presurgically and postsurgically at 3 and 12 months. The mean preoperative distance between the sinus floor and the crest was 7.0 mm (range 2.3–10.3 mm). The mean distances between the implant apex and the initial sinus floor were: 3.66±1.74 mm mesially and 4.44±1.62 mm distally. The mean height of the new bone reaching apically and mesially to the implants was 1.52±2.48 mm at surgery, but was reduced significantly to 1.24±1.30 mm at 3 months and 0.29±1.91 mm after 12 months (Hotelling's test P≤0.01). Similar values were obtained at the disto-apical aspects. In an attempt to assess periapical bone/graft remodeling, a novel index was applied: 0=no bone/graft visible, 1=cloudy appearance of new bone/graft, 2=clearly visible new bone/graft disappearing structures of original sinus floor, 3=new bone/graft with new cortical plate and the former boundary of the sinus floor disappearing. This index increased statistically significantly from baseline to 12 months (Hotelling's test P≤0.02). In conclusion, this study shows that in areas with reduced bone height subjacent to the sinus, an osteotome technique may provide a minimally invasive way to obtain implant abutments predictably. The grafted area apical to the implants undergoes shrinkage and remodeling. The original boundary of the sinus is eventually consolidated and replaced by a new cortical plate. In addition to the linear measurements, the novel index may assist in assessing periapical remodeling at implants placed with an osteotome technique.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: A prospective cohort study of 45 nonsmoking consecutively admitted patients was studied for the treatment outcomes following jaw bone augmentation in conjunction with installment of oral implants. Twenty-eight patients were treated for both bone augmentation and implant treatment simultaneously, while 17 patients were treated with a staged approach with the bone augmentation being performed 6–8 months prior to implant installation. Three months following this, prosthetic reconstructions were incorporated. One year thereafter, baseline data and 3 years after reconstruction, follow-up data were obtained. Moderately low mean scores for the bleeding on probing percentage were found at baseline (24%) and after 3 years of function (17%), while the corresponding values at the implant sites were 40.6% and 52.4%, respectively. However, the modified gingival index (mGI)=2 was found in only 4.8%, and 6.9% at the baseline and 3-year examinations. Peri-implant Probing depth (PPD) and level of attachment mean values did not vary between baseline and follow-up examinations. Only a small proportion of 1.8% yielded PPD=6.0 mm after 3 years of function. Radiographic bone level measurements showed that 18.2% of the implants lost 0.5 mm during the observation period. Seventy percent of the sites were considered completely stable. It was concluded that predictable treatment outcomes resulted for oral implant installation combined with or staged after jawbone augmentation. Only 6.5% of the sites had lost 1.5% crestal bone with the staged approach while 14% of the sites had lost 1.5 mm, when the implants were placed simultaneously. This suggests that the staged approach may have a lower risk for greater amounts of crestal bone loss as the simultaneous approach. In general, crestal bone loss encountered in the present study corresponded very well with that reported following placement of the same implant system into nonaugmented bone.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims: The clinical effects and gingival abrasion aspects of 2 electrical toothbrushes (Braun Oral-B Plak Control Ultra and the novel development Braun Oral-B Plak Control 3D) were to be compared with conventional manual toothbrushing.Material and Methods: In a cross-over study, 26 dental student volunteers participated and were assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Following instruction in the use of the electric as well as manual toothbrushes, the volunteers were timed for 2 min each day to apply one electric or the manual toothbrush, respectively, during 3 experimental phases of 2 weeks. No other methods of tooth cleaning were to be performed except the one specified for the respective test period. When brushing manually, the Bass toothbrushing technique was applied. Between each test period, a recovery period of 1 week was allowed during which no oral hygiene was performed at all. At the start and the end of each of the experimental periods, the extension of plaque deposits from the gingival margin in coronal direction was assessed using the Turesky et al. modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. Presence or absence of gingival inflammation was evaluated by bleeding and probing (BOP). The extent and severity of gingival abrasions were assessed by use of a modified method of Breitenmoser et al. and adapted by Danser et al.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:The plaque-reducing effect was similar in all groups with the same cleaning regime. For that reason, the result of the different experimental phases with the respective cleaning modalities were collapsed. Cleaning with the Braun Oral-B Plak Control Ultra electric toothbrush resulted consistently in the lowest plaque scores when compared to both the Braun Oral-B Plak Control 3D and the manual toothbrush. Although the differences in plaque reduction were statistically significant between cleaning with Braun Oral-B Plak Control Ultra and 3D, they were small and of questionable clinical relevance. No significant differences in plaque reductions were found between manual brushing and any of the 2 electric brushes. Gingival abrasions were least pronounced following brushing with the Braun Oral-B Plak Control 3D electric toothbrush. However, no significant differences in gingival abrasion were encountered following brushing with the Braun Oral-B Plak Control Ultra electric in comparison with the manual toothbrush.Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that in a group of dental students trained in manual brushing technique, where efficacy was similar with the 3 toothbrushes tested, there is no evidence of greater gingival abrasion with either Braun Oral-B Plak Control Ultra or 3D when compared with a manual brush.
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