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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized clinically by localized palmoplantar thickening and histopathologically by granular degeneration of the epidermis. Recent molecular biological studies have revealed that EPPK is caused by mutations of the keratin 9 gene in sequences mainly encoding the highly conserved 1 A rod domain. Here we demonstrate a novel mutation of N160H (position 8 of the 1 A domain) and two other previously reported mutations, R162W and N160S, in five unrelated Korean families with EPPK. The three-dimensional structure of the 1 A domain of the related vimentin intermediate filament protein chain is now known. Based on its likely similarity to the keratin 9 chain, we predict that inappropriate amino acid substitutions in position 10 of 1 A will likely interfere with coiled-coil dimer stability, and those in position 8 will interfere with tetramer stability. Accordingly, these mutations compromise the structural integrity of the keratin intermediate filaments leading to the pathology of EPPK.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that can enhance wound healing. In an effort to find downstream effectors of SPC, we performed microarray analysis and found that the expression of the gene for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was significantly affected in human skin fibroblasts cultured in vitro. Northern blot analysis showed that SPC markedly induced CTGF mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Consistent with this result, Western blot analysis also showed that SPC significantly induced the CTGF production. Pretreatment with cycloheximide did not prevent the CTGF induction by SPC, indicating that SPC stimulates CTGF mRNA expression without the increased synthesis of a regulatory protein. Inhibition by pretreatment with Y27632, but not by PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 inhibitor) and LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), indicated that ρ-kinase pathway was involved in SPC-induced CTGF expression. Together, these results reveal the potential importance of CTGF induction as a downstream event in SPC-induced cellular responses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Terminal differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes involves major biochemical changes including the expression of many new differentiation-specific genes. To further understand this process, we performed suppression-subtractive hybridization of keratinocytes cultured under high-calcium condition, known to induce differentiation in vitro. We randomly isolated 300 clones representing 90 different genes. By reverse Northern blot analyses, 20 different genes were found to be overexpressed, of which 13 were confirmed as differentially expressed genes during keratinocyte differentiation by Northern blot analysis. Of those, five genes, transglutaminase 1, keratin 6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, kallikrein 7, and heat shock protein 27, are known to be up-regulated during epidermal differentiation. Six genes, ferritin-L chain, ribosomal protein S6, tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2, neuroendocrine secretory protein 55, phosphoserine aminotransferase, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, heretofore were not known to be up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation. We also identified two novel genes. One of these maps to chromosome 1q21 of the epidermal differentiation complex, and its expression level was strongly increased in differentiating keratinocytes. These differentially expressed genes may provide significant opportunities for further understanding of the epidermal keratinocyte differentiation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A cDNA encoding RARF1 (rice ADP-ribosylation factor 1) was isolated from fungal elicitor-treated rice suspension culture cells by mRNA differential display. RARF1 transcripts accumulated in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid (SA) and rapidly in cells inoculated with an avirulent pathogen. Constitutively over-expressed RARF1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV 35S) triggered spontaneous induction of lesion mimics, induced an array of pathogenosis-related (PR) genes, reduced susceptibility to a fungal pathogen, and caused accumulation of SA. From these data, we deduced that RARF1 might be a component of various plant defence signalling pathways involved in inducing the expression of a subset of PR genes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0560
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Angiomyxolipoma (vascular myxolipoma) is a recently described rare variant of lipoma, four cases of which have been reported to date. Microscopically, the lesion consists of adipose tissue without lipoblasts, extensive myxoid areas, and numerous blood vessels. The main differential diagnosis of this lesion is myxoid liposarcoma, and other adipocytic lesions such as myxolipoma, myxoid spindle cell lipoma should be included. We report two cases of angiomyxolipoma located in the subcutaneous tissue of the forearm and the wrist.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Numerous epidemiological studies have reported that tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for oral cancer, but relatively little is known about the effect of nicotine, a major product of cigarette smoking, on immortalized oral keratinocytes and cancer cells.Methods:  We investigated the effects of nicotine on the growth and differentiation of immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK), primary oral cancer cells (HN4), metastatic oral cancer cells (HN12), and human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT), in the monolayer and in the three-dimensional (3D) raft cultures using the MTT assay, Western blotting, and cell cycle analysis.Results:  Nicotine inhibited the proliferation of immortalized and malignant keratinocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners as determined by MTT assay. The 3D organotypic culture showed that nicotine at high concentration (300 μM) inhibits epithelial maturation, surface keratinization, and decreased epithelial thickness. Flow cytometry showed that nicotine inhibited cell cycle progression by inducing G0/G1 arrest of HaCaT, IHOK, HN4, and HN12 cells without causing apoptosis. Nicotine treatment increased p21 expression in immortalized cells (HaCaT, IHOK) and oral cancer cells (HN4, HN12), but decreased pRb and p53 expression in oral cancer cells. Moreover, after high-dose nicotine treatment, the involucrin expression increased markedly in immortalized cells, but not in oral cancer cells.Conclusions:  We demonstrated that nicotine inhibits growth through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase probably by increasing the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1. Nicotine also affects epithelial differentiation in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes. Malignant oral keratinocytes appear to be more resistant to the effects of nicotine on epithelial growth and differentiation as compared to the immortalized cells.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Allergy 56 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Buckwheat flour (BF) is known as a potent food allergen. Sensitization to it usually occurs by ingestion but also by inhalation in occupational or domestic exposure. Buckwheat chaff-stuffed pillows (BCP) can be contaminated with BF during the process of pilling, and many Korean children and adults use BCP for health reasons. Methods and Results: We here present three cases of BF allergy in children using BCP, who had been treated as nonatopic asthmatics after undergoing the routine allergy skin tests and serologic tests. We took careful clinical histories, and performed skin prick tests (SPT), the radioimmunoassay (RIA) for specific IgE, the BCP-elimination test, the BF bronchial provocation test, and IgE Western blot. All three children showed positive skin reactions to BF, but none of them had positive reactions to house-dust mites. Nocturnal asthmatic symptoms were improved during 7 days of BCP elimination, and asthmatic responses were observed by bronchial provocation tests with homemade BF extract. Serum BF-specific IgE antibodies and several IgE-binding proteins were detected by RIA and Western blot analysis, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, a small amount of BF attached to BCP can induce BF sensitization, and BCP should be considered a main cause of childhood nocturnal asthma in those asthmatics exposed to these pillows.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0560
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm. Recently, a more aggressive, so-called ‘proximal type’ epithelioid sarcoma has been described.Clinical case:  A 40-year-old-woman presented with 5 × 4 cm, erythematous, indurated, non-movable, painful mass on the pubic area. Histopathology demonstrated diffuse tumor-cell infiltration into the subcutaneous and fascia, which was consisted of prominent epithelioid cells and scattered rhabdoid cells. A multinodular growth pattern or granulomatous appearance with central necrosis was not observed. The tumor cells showed positive reactions for vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), and CD34. Despite the surgery, left inguinal mass with lymphadenopathy occurred one month later. We also carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with tumor cells. CGH revealed chromosomal gain of 5q32-qter, 12q24-qter, and 22q.Conclusion:  We report a case of proximal-type of epithelioid sarcoma, which showed the chromosomal gains of 5q32-qter, 12q24-qter, and 22q by CGH.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0595
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract – The maintenance of healthy periodontal ligament cells in the donor tooth is one of the most important factors for successful tooth transplantation. This is achieved by minimizing the extra-oral time during the surgical procedure. If a duplicate form of donor tooth could be obtained before extraction, it would be possible to precontour the recipient alveolar bone compatible with the donor tooth, and thereby reduce the extra-oral time of the donor tooth. We obtained a three-dimensional image with the real dimensions of the donor tooth from a CT Highspeed AdvantageTM, allowing a life-sized resin model of the tooth to be fabricated. From 22 clinical cases, we achieved an average total transplantation time of 7.7 min. The average distance between the transplanted root surface and the alveolar bone from 12 available cases was 0.87 mm at the mesial cervix, 0.91 mm at the mesial apex, 0.98 mm at the distal cervix and 1.16 mm at the distal apex on the postoperative radiographs. Clinical data indicate that computer-aided rapid prototyping may be of value in minimizing the extra-oral time and possible injury to transplanted tooth during the process of autotransplantation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Mature dendritic cells (DCs) were generated by culturing human peripheral blood monocytes for 7 days and, then, treating them with a cytokine cocktail for 2 days. The viability of the mature DCs (Day 9) obtained was approximately 60–70%, and this gradually declined when they were recultured in X-VIVO 15 media containing 2% human plasma (40% viability after 3 days of reculture). DC death accelerated on withdrawing plasma from the culture (20% viability after 3 days). However, the addition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to the medium completely restored DC viability in the absence of plasma. Such a protective effect was not afforded by other cytokines, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-4, IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 which are used for the maturation of DCs. These results indicate that TNF-α is specifically required to maintain the viability of mature DCs. The withdrawal of plasma rapidly (within 15 min) elevated cellular levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), which have been proposed to regulate the ability of DCs to control inflammatory reactions. The possibility that ROIs act as mediators of DC death was eliminated by the observation that scavengers of ROIs, such as catalase, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, failed to prolong DC life span in the absence of plasma. Interestingly, TNF-α was found to almost completely abolish the production of ROIs induced by plasma withdrawal. To summarize, our results suggest that TNF-α controls not only the inflammatory functions of DCs but also their survival.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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