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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract –  Objectives:  To explore, among the institutionalized elderly in Spain, the association between functional dependence in manipulating aids used in oral self-care (oral hygiene dependence) and general functional capacities, as measured by the Index of Activities of Daily Oral Hygiene (ADOH) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively.Methods:  A cross-sectional study was performed in 2002 on 390 Spanish residents of a residential home for the elderly aged, 65–101 years. All study subjects underwent a oral examination and their ADOH and BI scores assessed. The association between the index scores was studied and the discriminant capacity of BI for oral hygiene dependence was calculated.Results:  The mean number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (±SD) was 26.6 ± 7.3. The mean BI score was 68.31 (95% CI 64.35–72.27), and 172 individuals (44.1%; 95% CI 39.2–49.0%) were independent in all BI-measured functions. The mean ADOH score was 2.43 (95% CI 2.11–2.75), and 238 individuals (61.0%; 95% CI 56.2–65.9%) were independent for oral hygiene, 39 (10.0%; 95% CI 7.2–13.4%) required assistance (assistive devices), and 113 (29.0%; 95% CI 24.5–33.5%) were completely dependent. The BI scores were significantly correlated with the ADOH scores (r = −0.80, P 〈 0.001). The BI showed a high discriminant capacity to identify the individuals who were dependent for oral hygiene in this population (area under the ROC curve ± SE = 0.929 ± 0.013). Using the optimal cut-off point according to the Youden Index (〈61), the sensitivity was 0.87 ± 0.03 and specificity 0.87 ± 0.02.Conclusion:  There is a close association between BI and ADOH in this population, which could be useful to identify elderly individuals who are dependent for oral hygiene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Immunological reviews 186 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: Intercellular interactions are critical for a coordinated function of different cell types involved in the immune response. Here we review the cellular and molecular events occurring during cell–cell immune contacts. Cognate naïve CD4+ T lymphocyte-dendritic cell (DC) and primed T cell–antigen-presenting B lymphocyte interactions are discussed. The engagement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or natural killer cells (NK) with their targets is analyzed and compared to the process of T cell–antigen-presenting cell (APC) conjugate formation. The immunological synapse, a complex cluster of molecules organized at the contact area of cell conjugates, exhibits common features but shows some differences depending on cell types involved. Cellular interactions occur in sequential stages that involve dramatic changes in cell polarity and dynamic redistribution of cell membrane receptors. The role of membrane microdomains, adaptor molecules and the cytoskeleton in the regulation of the molecular reorganization at cell–cell contacts is also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: The reorganization of membrane, cytoskeletal and signaling molecules during immune interactions is critical for the generation of immune response. At the initiation of the T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) interaction, antigen-independent weak adhesion forces allow the scanning of the APC surface by the T cell receptor for specific antigens. The stabilization of T cell–APC conjugates involves the segregation of membrane and intracellular signaling proteins, driven by reorganization of membrane microdomains and cytoskeletal changes. In early T cell–APC cognate interactions, the microtubular cytoskeleton undergoes drastic changes that lead to microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) reorientation to the vicinity of the cell–cell contact area. Recent data on the dynamics of MTOC redistribution and its influence in T cell–APC conjugate stabilization, together with the description of an increasing number of signaling molecules associated to this complex, underscore the key role of MTOC translocation in the T cell response. We focus on the mechanisms that control the early MTOC reorientation during T cell–APC interaction and the relevance of this process to T cell activation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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