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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the present study was to compare block and particulated bone grafts for jaw augmentation in combination with immediate implant placement. Bone defects measuring 10 mm × 10 mm × 30 mm were prepared on each side of the mandible of eight minipigs. After a healing period of 3 months, the defects in four animals were augmented with iliac crest grafts as a block or particulated graft, combined with immediate implant insertion. Clinical inspection was performed after 14 days. Complete exposure of grafts and implants was discovered. The surgical procedures were altered in the fifth animal. Inspection was made after 4 days showing no alterations. However, after another 7 days, grafts and implants were exposed. Consequently, the study was discontinued and all eight animals were killed. It is concluded that an intraoral approach is not applicable for this type of experimental surgery in minipigs. This paper describes some of the presumed reasons for the failure of the study.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Munksgaard : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The replacement of teeth by means of titanium implants is a safe and predictable procedure in most patients. Some studies show that a small number of patients lose the majority of their implants. Unfortunately, it is impossible to identify these patients prior to surgery. It is important to report such cases so that we may, in the future, be able to identify them before surgery. The present case showed a severe and rapid exfoliation of titanium implants. Out of 8 implants inserted in the anterior lower jaw of this patient, only two maintained osseointegration over a 2-year period.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Ecology of freshwater fish 14 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0633
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract – This study documents substantial small-scale spatial variation in age and size at maturity of brown trout (Salmo trutta) found either in allopatry (above major waterfalls) or in sympatry (below waterfalls) with the Alpine bullhead (Cottus poecilopus) in forest streams in south-east Norway. Within two streams, female brown trout above waterfalls tended to delay the onset of sexual maturity, as compared with females from neighbouring sites below the waterfalls. Four additional streams were represented with either an allopatric or a sympatric site. There was considerable variation in age and size at maturity among these streams, but no consistent difference between allopatric and sympatric sites. It is suggested that the spatial variation in maturity responses is influenced by local opportunities for growth, and possibly also survival. Earlier studies in these streams have linked spatial variation in brown trout behaviour and demography to the presence or absence of the Alpine bullhead.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Dental traumatology 16 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0595
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract – Whether bacteria live or die in periapical lesions of endodontic origin is debated. Sampling of periapical bacteria is difficult due to possible contamination from the indigenous microflora. The aim of this study was to examine whether bacteria were present in periapical lesions of asymptomatic teeth before sampling or were transferred there during sampling. Thirty patients with root-filled teeth and periapical radiolucencies were divided into two groups, each containing 15 patients. In Group 1, a marginal incision was made to explore the periapical lesion. In Group 2, a submarginal incision was made. Before incision, the gingiva and mucosa were washed with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Bacterial samples were taken from the mucosa before reflecting the flap, and from the alveolar bone and the periapical lesion immediately after. All samples were cultured anaerobically on all-purpose and selective media. In Group 1, 12 of the 15 patients (80%) yielded bacteria from their mucosal samples despite the chlorhexidine wash. Bacterial growth was observed in all samples (100%) from the alveolar bone while the periapical lesions gave bacterial growth in 11 of 15 cases (73%). In Group 2, bacteria were cultured from the mucosa in 11 of 15 (73%) patients. Three samples (20%) from the alveolar bone and 10 from the periapical lesions (67%) gave positive growth. The predominant cultivable bacteria were anaerobic. Phenotypic profiling, performed with the data-based API bioMérieux system, indicated that the sampling technique used prevented mucosal bacteria from reaching the exposed bone and the periapical lesions. Profiling also indicated that following marginal incision, bacteria from the periodontal pocket might have reached the underlying tissues by surgeon-released bacteremia or direct translocation. Most organisms detected in the periapical lesions were clearly different from the bacteria present at neighboring sites and appeared to have been there before sampling.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0633
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  – The effect of kinship on growth and use of space by individually PIT-tagged 1+ brown trout was studied for 11 weeks in eight stream enclosures. Each enclosure consisted of two sections, separated by a region containing PIT-detecting antennae, which enabled us to measure use of sections by all individuals. Two types of sibling groups were tested, a single sibling group, F1, consisting of four individuals that were reared together in hatchery tank ‘a’ (F1a) plus four additional siblings of the same family but raised in hatchery tank ‘b’ (F1b), and a mixed sibling group, consisting of four F1a individuals plus four siblings from a second family, F2. Based on kin theory and earlier laboratory studies, we expected that growth of the F1a individuals in the single sibling group to be greater than that of F1a individuals in the mixed family sibling group, but instead we found just the opposite. The variance of growth did not differ between treatments. Nor was there a difference in time F1a individuals spent together when they were in mixed versus single sibling groups. We did find that F1a individuals changed habitat more frequently than F2 individuals in the mixed sibling group but less frequently than F1b in the single sibling groups. Thus, our predictions based on kin theory for growth and behavior of brown trout were not supported by our data, and we suggest that the role of kin recognition for the ecology of salmonids deserves further attention.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Objective: To assess the effect of a neuromuscular training program on the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female team handball players. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study.Setting: Female team handball: Division I–III in Norway.Participants: Players from the top three divisions: control season (1998–1999), 60 teams (942 players); first intervention season (1999–2000), 58 teams (855 players); second intervention season (2000–2001), 52 teams (850 players).Intervention: A five-phase program (duration, 15 min) with three different balance exercises focusing on neuromuscular control and planting/landing skills was developed and introduced to the players in the autumn of 1999 and revised before the start of the season in 2000. The teams were instructed in the program and supplied with an instructional video, poster, six balance mats, and six wobble boards. Additionally, a physical therapist was attached to each team to follow up with the intervention program during the second intervention period.Main Outcome Measures: The number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during the three seasons and compliance with the program.Results: There were 29 anterior cruciate ligament injuries during the control season, 23 injuries during the first intervention season (OR, 0.87; CI, 0.50–1.52; P=0.62), and 17 injuries during the second intervention season (OR, 0.64; CI, 0.35–1.18; P=0.15). In the elite division, there were 13 injuries during the control season, six injuries during the first intervention season (OR, 0.51; CI, 0.19–1.35; P=0.17), and five injuries in the second intervention season (OR, 0.37; CI, 0.13–1.05; P=0.06). For the entire cohort, there was no difference in injury rates during the second intervention season between those who complied and those who did not comply (OR, 0.52; CI, 0.15–1.82; P=0.31). In the elite division, the risk of injury was reduced among those who completed the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program (OR, 0.06; CI, 0.01–0.54; P=0.01) compared with those who did not.Conclusions: This study shows that it is possible to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries with specific neuromuscular training.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: (1) Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by post-exercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake remains unresolved. (2) The study investigated the importance of immediate (P0) or delayed (P2) intake of an oral protein supplement upon muscle hypertrophy and strength over a period of resistance training in elderly males. (3) Thirteen men (age 74 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI), 25 ± 1 kg m− 2 (means ± SEM)) completed a 12-week resistance training program (three times per week) receiving oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately after (P0) or 2 h after (P2) each training session. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from muscle biopsies and muscle strength was determined using dynamic and isokinetic strength measurements. Body composition was determined from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and food records were obtained over 4 days. The plasma insulin response to protein supplementation was also determined. (4) In response to training, the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps femoris (54.6 ± 0.5–58.3 ± 0.5 cm2) and mean fiber area (4047 ± 320–5019 ± 615 μ m2) increased in the P0 group, whereas no significant increase was observed in P2. For P0 both dynamic and isokinetic strength increased, by 46 and 15%, respectively (P 〈 0.05), whereas P2 only improved in dynamic strength, by 36% (P 〈 0.05). No differences in glucose or insulin response were observed between protein intake at 0 and 2 h post-exercise. (5) We conclude that early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of elderly men in response to resistance training.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Dental traumatology 16 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0595
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract – In the present study the “checkerboard” DNA-DNA hybridization technique was used to identify bacteria in periapical endodontic lesions of asymptomatic teeth. Thirty-four patients with root-filled teeth and apical periodontitis were divided into two groups, each containing 17 patients. In Group 1, a marginal incision was performed during surgery to expose the lesion, and in Group 2, a submarginal incision was applied. The gingiva and mucosa were swabbed with an 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution prior to surgery. Bacterial DNA was identified in all samples from the two groups using 40 different whole genomic probes. The mean number (±SD) of species detected was 33.7±3.3 in Group 1 and 21.3±6.3 in Group 2 (P〈0.001). The majority of the probe-detected bacteria were present in more lesions from Group1 than from Group 2. The differences were most notable for Campylobacter gracilis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Propionibacterium acnes, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. nucleatum, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, Streptococcus constellatus and Actinomyces naeslundii I. Bacterial species such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Bacteroides forsythus were detected in more than 60% of the lesions from both groups. Also, P. endodontalis was abundant in periapical tissue. The data supported the idea that following a marginal incision, bacteria from the periodontal pocket might reach the underlying tissues by surgeon-released bacteremia. The study provided solid evidence that bacteria invade the periapical tissue of asymptomatic teeth with apical periodontitis. The detection of much more bacteria with the “checkerboard” DNA-DNA hybridization method than has previously been recovered by anaerobic culture indicated that the endodontic (and periodontal) microfloras should be redefined using molecular methods.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Yeasts are found in periodontal pockets at a frequency of 15–21%. However, the genetic relatedness of oral yeasts within and between patients with marginal periodontitis is not clear.Objectives:  Assay genetic relatedness of oral yeasts from marginal periodontitis patients and oral health subjects, as well as genetic relatedness of yeasts from different oral sites in these two groups of participants.Material and methods:  Yeast isolates were collected from 23 marginal periodontitis patients and 19 oral health subjects. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and the Dendron computer-assisted program for gel analyses were applied for estimation of genetic relatedness of yeasts.Results:  The similarity coefficient (SAB) of the marginal periodontitis group ranged from 0.49 to 1.00 with an average of 0.64 ± 0.11, whereas the SAB of the oral health group ranged from 0.62 to 1.00 with an average of 0.72 ± 0.07. Three genetic clusters and 73 genotypes were obtained from the marginal periodontitis group, whereas three genetic clusters and 55 genotypes were found in the oral health group. In the pooled dendrogram, 57% of the yeast isolates and the type strain of Candida albicans fell in a major cluster V. There were no significant differences between the frequencies of clusters from the different oral sites within the two participant groups.Conclusions:  Genetically heterogeneous yeasts were found in the oral cavities of marginal periodontitis patients and oral health subjects. Similar genetic clustering patterns were obtained from the yeasts of the two groups, with cluster V being most predominant. Yeasts of the marginal periodontitis group were more genetically diverse than yeasts of the oral health group, and some yeasts of the marginal periodontitis group exhibited unique genetic patterns. There was no clear association between yeast genetic clusters and oral sites in the two participant groups.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Pathological external forearm rotation (PEFR) relates to posterolateral elbow joint instability, and is considered a possible requisite step in a simple posterior elbow joint dislocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsuloligamentous restraint to PEFR. In all, 18 elbow joint specimens were examined in a joint analysis system developed for experimental elbow dislocation. Sequential cutting of capsule and ligaments followed by stability testing provided specific data relating to each capsuloligamentous structure. The primary stabilizers against PEFR in the extended elbow were the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation.
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