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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Experimental dermatology 14 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Three variants of the living skin equivalent cultures were compared in order to determine the most suitable to grow human differentiated epidermis to test beneficial properties of nutrients. Criteria of culture quality were mitotic index and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) assayed by means of a ServoMed Evaporimeter EP-2TM (ServoMed, Kinna, Sweden). Standards were donor skin mean mitotic index 11.1% and TEWL of living subjects mean 6.4 g/m2/h. Cultures (i) in 5% serum, 10 ng/ml of epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 37°C and 95% relative humidity (RH); mitotic index on day 14, 19.2%, but on day 21, 1.8% and TEWL 9.5 g/m2/h on day 18. (ii) In 1% serum, no EGF, 33°C and 95% RH, mitotic index on day 21, 9.1% and TEWL, 9.5% on day 18. (iii) Culture in same medium, 33°C and 60% RH, mitotic index on day 28, 9.5% and TEWL 6.1 g/m2/h on day 18 as in vivo. Incubation in 60% RH was achieved using a novel chamber and dishes exposing only the corneum, sealing the medium. Vitamins C and E were used as model test nutrients. Culture conditions were 1% serum, no EGF at 33°C and 95% RH. Vitamin C at 142 and 284 µM increased the mitotic index after 10- and 15-day treatment, but at 586 µM it was weakly toxic. Vitamin E at 20 and 40 µM did not. Both vitamins reduced TEWL providing functional data in support of previous reports on barrier properties. These are functional biomarkers of skin benefit relevant to skin in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: Transfer of CD4+ T cells to immune-deficient mice in the absence of the CD25+ subset leads to the development of colitis, indicating that regulatory cells capable of controlling a bacteria-driven inflammatory response are present in normal mice. Cells with this function are present in the thymus as well as in the periphery of germ-free mice, suggesting they may be reactive with self-antigen. These cells resemble CD4+CD25+ cells that inhibit organ-specific autoimmunity, suggesting that a similar subset of regulatory T cells may control responses to self and foreign antigens. Development of colitis is dependent on accumulation of activated CD134L+ dendritic cells (DC) in the mesenteric lymph nodes, which is inhibited by CD4+CD25+ cells, indicating that regulatory T cells may control DC activation in vivo. Whilst inhibition of T-cell activation in vitro by CD4+CD25+ cells does not involve interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, these cytokines are required for the suppression of colitis. It may be that control of responses that activate the innate immune system requires multiple mechanisms of immune suppression. Recently, we identified CD4+CD25+ cells with immune suppressive activity in the thymus and peripheral blood of humans, raising the possibility that dysfunction in this mechanism of immune regulation may be involved in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Contact dermatitis 52 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0633
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract – Fish assemblages in three rivers of eastern Cape York Peninsula, northern Australia, were sampled during the early part of the monsoonal dry season, and the diet of 23 species was quantified. Spatial variation (between-river) in diet was, in general, not pronounced. Sufficient specimens were collected to enable examination of ontogenetic changes in the diet of four species. Interspecific and ontogenetic variation in diet were most strongly related to differences in body size and mouth gape, with larger species or age classes feeding on fish and large aquatic invertebrates. Other gradients upon which dietary differences were arranged included gradients in detritivory and reliance on terrestrial invertebrates. Significant trophic separation was evident in the fauna despite aquatic invertebrates being the most important food item in most species. Seven, and possibly eight, trophic groups were recognized. Notable features of the trophic organization were the prevalence of omnivory and piscivory and relatively small representation by detritivores. Planktivores were essentially absent. Much of the observed trophic structure within the fishes of Cape York Peninsula could be ascribed to the effects of phylogenetic determinants of body size, morphology and foraging mode. The trophic structure within rivers of eastern Cape York Peninsula is compared to other aquatic systems in tropical northern Australia./〉
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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