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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Percutaneous absorption of lipophilic substances has major implications for therapeutical use or toxicological effects. We, therefore, using dermal microdialysis, measured local toluene concentrations and assessed the effects of duration of exposure, skin barrier disruption and the use of skin-care products.Three microdialysis membranes (3000 kDa) were inserted intradermally at a length of 2 cm in the abdominal skin of 82 anaesthetized male Wistar rats. They were perfused with albumin solution (5%) at 10 µl/min. A skin area of 1.5 × 0.6 cm above the membranes was exposed to toluene (100%, 200 µl) for 15 or 240 min. Dialysate was sampled at 20-min intervals. Using GC-FPD (gas charomotography flame photometric detector), it was analysed for toluene. In addition, the effects of tape stripping and pretreatment with topical products were assessed. In each of the 12 permutations of exposure time, pretreatments and tape stripping, five to eight animals were investigated.Maximum toluene concentrations were reached at 60 min after exposure (3.07 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 15 min; 5.38 ± 0.92 µg/ml, 240 min). In 15-min exposure experiments, dermal toluene concentrations decreased slowly to reach baseline values after 240 min. After 240-min exposure, a plateau of approximately 6 µg/ml was reached after 60 min. Neither tape stripping nor the pretreatment with barrier cream induced a significant change on dermal toluene concentrations.The slow kinetics of toluene penetration results in a steep concentration gradient in the skin with very-high local toluene concentrations and a delayed wash out, which might be relevant not only toxicologically, but also therapeutically.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this controlled retrospective study was to evaluate the influence of an IL-1 gene polymorphism on the clinical and radiographic healing outcomes of GTR therapy. The study included 47 adult periodontitis patients with 94 deep intrabony defects treated by GTR using different membrane materials. The following clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 12 months after surgery: papillary bleeding index (PBI), gingival recession (REC), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and the vertical relative attachment gain (V-rAG). Bone changes in the defect regions due to GTR therapy were quantitatively evaluated using digital subtraction radiography (DSR). Polymorphisms of the IL-1A gene at position − 889 and of the IL-1B gene at position + 3953 were analyzed by PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney-U and the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank tests (α = 0.05). The study comprised 19 IL-1 genotype positive (IL-1 +) patients and 28 IL-1 genotype negative (IL-1 –) patients. Twelve months after GTR therapy, both patient groups revealed statistically significant PPD reductions and CAL gain [median (25/75% percentiles)]: ΔPPD [IL-1 + : 4.0 (2.5/5.0) mm; IL-1-: 3.8 (3.0/4.9) mm], ΔCAL [IL-1 + : 3.5 (3.0/4.8) mm; IL-1 –: 3.0 (1, 2/4, 5) mm]. V-rAG amounted to 60.0 (47.7/78.6)% in IL-1 + patients and 53.1 (43.4/81.9)% in IL-1 – patients. Both patient groups showed significant bone density gain in 40% (IL-1 +) and 43.6% (IL-1 –) of the initial defect area due to GTR. Neither the clinical nor the radiographic healing parameters revealed any statistically significant differences in the GTR healing outcome between IL-1 + and IL-1 – patients. In conclusion, these 12-month findings indicate that the IL-1 gene polymorphism has no influence on the clinical and radiographic regeneration results following GTR therapy.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An Ndh-deficient mutant of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havana) was prepared by disrupting the ndhF gene in a transplastomic approach. The mutant (ΔndhF) showed 10% of the Ndh complex activity (EC 1.6.5.3) and 8% of the NDH-F polypeptide of that of non-transformed plants. However, in ΔndhF, NDH-A, another Ndh polypeptide, was still present at 50% of the level in non-transformed plants. ΔndhF tobacco showed higher sensitivity than non-transformed plants to photo-oxidative stress (as judged by chlorophyll bleaching) caused by increased light intensity and paraquat applications. These photo-oxidative treatments increased the amount and activity of the Ndh complex, thylakoid peroxidase, post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence in non-transformed but not in ΔndhF tobacco. Highly stressed non-transformed plants showed a rapid post-rise decline of chlorophyll fluorescence, probably indicating a re-oxidation of reduced plastoquinone. The results indicate that, in normal plants, the Ndh complex and thylakoid peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) provide and remove electrons, respectively, to balance the redox level of the intermediates of cyclic electron transport. In this way, they optimize the generation of the transmembrane H+ gradient of thylakoids and, as a consequence, increase the NPQ and the protection against photo-oxidative stress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Interferon (IFN)-α is a cytokine that possesses potent anti-viral and immunoregulatory activities. We aimed to assess clinical and immunological effects of low-dose IFN-α in patients with severe corticosteroid-resistant asthma with and without Churg–Strauss syndrome. There is currently no efficient pharmacological treatment available for this group of patients.Methods:  We studied 10 patients with corticosteroid-resistant asthma, in which 3×106 IU/day IFN-α were administrated in addition to the prednisone dose given already before introduction of the cytokine therapy. The prednisone dose was gradually reduced dependent on the clinical situation and used as a clinical readout to evaluate the efficacy of the cytokine therapy. To distinguish between IFN-α- and prednisone-mediated immunological changes, the corticosteroid dose was kept constant for at least 2 weeks upon introduction of the cytokine therapy in seven patients. The effects of treatment on clinical and immunological parameters were measured at 2–4 weeks and 5–10 months depending on the availability of the patient.Results:  Interferon-α treatment rapidly improved the clinical situation as assessed by lung function parameters and required prednisone dose. Important immunological changes included: decreased leukocyte numbers, increased relative numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased differentiation of T helper (Th)1 cells, and increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Conclusion:  Interferon-α treatment was associated with dramatic improvements in the condition of patients with corticosteroid-resistant asthma with and without Churg–Strauss syndrome. Potential mechanisms of action include the establishment of a correct Th1/Th2 balance and the induction of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Allergy 56 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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