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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The aims were to examine the percentage of female elite athletes and controls reporting sexual harassment and abuse (SHAB), and whether a higher percentage of female athletes with eating disorders (ED) had experienced SHAB. A questionnaire was administered to the total population of female elite athletes (n = 660) and controls (n = 780) aged 15–39 years. Sexual harassment and abuse were measured through 11 questions, ranging from light to severe SHAB. In addition, questions about dietary-, menstrual- and training-history and the Eating Disorder Inventory were included. The response rate was 88% for athletes and 71% for controls. Athletes (n = 121) and controls (n = 81) classified as “at risk” for ED and non-ED controls participated in a clinical interview. A higher percentage of controls compared with athletes reported experiences of SHAB in general (59% vs. 51%, P 〈 0.001). A lower percentage of athletes had experienced SHAB inside sports than outside sport (28% vs. 39%, P 〈 0.001). A higher percentage of ED athletes than non-ED athletes had experienced SHAB (66% vs. 48%, P 〈 0.01), both inside sport and outside sport. In spite of the fact that a higher percentage of controls compared with athletes had experienced SHAB, it is necessary to formulate clear guidelines, set up educational workshops and implement intervention programs for both ED and SHAB in sport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: A prospective study of soccer injuries, involving 287 male youth players, from the ages of 12–15 was conducted in 24 Greek soccer clubs, during the course of one year. A total of 193 players sustained 209 injuries. The incidence of injuries was 4.0 injuries per 1000 h of soccer time per player, and the most common types of injuries were sprains and strains. Surprisingly, it was found that an increase of injury incidences occurred during practice. Fifty-eight injuries required medical assistance. The majority of injuries (80%) were located in the lower extremities. Collision with other players was the most common activity at the time of injury, accounting for 40% of all injuries. The conclusion of this study and the evidence from other studies suggests that youth soccer is a relatively low risk sport. However, a substantial amount of injuries could be prevented. It is necessary to identify the risk factors, which are associated with these types of injuries.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The associations between physical activity in leisure time with special focus on jogging and the level of mental stress and life dissatisfaction were studied in 12 028 randomly selected men and women aged 20–79 years. The associations were similar in men and women; thus, results are given for pooled data. The odds ratios (ORs) are presented as adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education and income. With increasing physical activity in leisure time, there was a decrease in high level of stress, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.16 to 0.56). With increasing physical activity there was also a decrease in life dissatisfaction, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% CI from 0.18 to 0.52). Although there was a dose–response effect between physical activity and psychosocial well-being the most pronounced difference with regard to the level of stress and dissatisfaction was seen between the group with low and the group with moderate physical activity, e.g., 2–4 h of walking per week.In conclusion, we recommend that increased well-being should be a key argument in future campaigns for increased leisure-time physical activity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: One hundred drop jumps were performed at maximal intensity every 20 s in 12 untrained subjects (UT), 9 sprinters (S) and 10 long-distance runners (LDR). Muscle contraction force (P20, P50) induced by percutaneous electrical stimulation (20 Hz and 50 Hz, respectively) as well as maximal voluntary contraction force and the height of vertical jumps performed in different ways decreased (P〈0.05) and was not restored to the initial value 20 min post exercise. There was a marked increase in low frequency fatigue (LFF) in all the groups studied as substantiated by a significant decrease in the ratio of P20/P50 immediately after exercise as well as 20 min post exercise compared to pre exercise values (P〈0.05). However, low frequency fatigue was similar in UT, S and LDR. The jump height of the sprinters during counter-movement jump and drop jump at 90 ° decreased to a smaller extent compared to jumps performed by LDR and UT. Muscle pain did not differ between UT, S and LDR at 24 h post exercise. The present data indicate that endurance training status as well as prevalence of muscle fibres of the slow type does not decrease muscle resistance to LFF nor accelerate the recovery of muscle contraction force following maximal, intermittent stretch-shortening cycle exercise.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Traditionally, the concept of joint stability considered the displacement (or subluxation) of two bones relative to each other as the measurement index, and attributed the preservation of such stability in its physiologic range to the various ligaments associated with the joint. Although the ligaments are indeed the major restraints of any joint, the significant contribution of the musculature toward joint stability had been grossly overlooked or neglected until the last 15 years. The value and importance of muscular activity in that role becomes immediately apparent if one performs even a superficial functional comparison of muscles and ligaments. Ligaments are passive viscoelastic structures, whereas muscles are dynamic viscoelastic organs. The viscoelastic effects of the ligaments are activated and applied strictly upon the geometric and kinematic configuration of the joint traversing through its range of motion according to fixed force-displacement relationships. The musculature, however, can apply passive viscoelastic effects to the joint when not active (passive tone) and variable dynamic viscoelastic effects when contracting under voluntary or reflexive control, and at any desirable point in the range of motion and in response to joint speed, external load, gravity, pain, and so forth, while executing the functional objective of the movement set by the individual. Preservation of joint stability cannot be ascribed to the ligaments alone, but should be considered as a synergistic function in which bones, joint capsules, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and sensory receptors and their spinal and cortical neural projects and connections function in harmony.The objective of this report is to first review the anatomy and physiology of the various mechanoreceptors and their neural pathways about the joint, and describe some of the current concepts of the reflex arcs elicited by such receptors, with special emphasis on biomechanical outcomes relative to stability. The role of the musculature in maintaining stability while controlling joint motion is then reviewed, with data obtained from experiments performed on humans and animals. Finally, some clinical findings from patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency using a brace that simulates the ligament–muscle functions is described.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Non-traumatic shoulder pain in the overhead athlete is a diagnostic challenge. In the last decade shoulder arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have extended our knowledge. Previously unknown pathologic changes in the glenohumeral joint have been demonstrated and it is recognized that impingement symptoms and instability are often related. Shoulder dysfunction in overhead athletes may be caused by shoulder instability. However, a possible instability in the shoulder is often “silent” and difficult to demonstrate by ordinary tests and has therefore by some been termed “functional instability”. It is now thought that functional instability in the shoulder may lead to a vicious cycle involving microtraumata and attenuation of the capsular complex, and may eventually lead to shoulder pain. Changes in shoulder proprioception, measured by testing kinaesthetic sense and position sense, can be related to different pathologic changes in the shoulder, and sensory motor control may be an important factor for functional stability in the shoulder. MRI and arthroscopical findings in athletes with shoulder pain are changes in the glenoid labrum, the humeral head, the rotator cuff, biceps tendon and the capsular complex. However, these findings often present other clinical entities than impingement and are not always associated with instability. Clinically, there are tests that can objectively distinguish some of the pathological findings. However, we need more exact methods to further improve our clinical diagnoses of the painful shoulder. One of the keys could be an extended knowledge about the pathophysiology behind functional instability. This review focuses on an improved terminology in impingement based on the current knowledge of impingement and instability in the shoulder.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: In the present review, we describe the effects of ageing on human muscle fibres, underlining that each human muscle is unique, meaning that the phenotype becomes specifically changed upon ageing in different muscles, and that the satellite cells are key cells in the regeneration and growth of muscle fibres. Satellite cells are closely associated with muscle fibres, located outside the muscle fibre sarcolemma but beneath the basement lamina. They are quiescent cells, which become activated by stimulation, like muscle fibre injury or increased muscle tension, start replicating and are responsible for the repair of injured muscle fibres and the growth of muscle fibres. The degree of replication is governed by the telomeric clock, which is affected upon excessive bouts of degeneration and regeneration as in muscular dystrophies. The telomeric clock, as in dystrophies, does not seem to be a limiting factor in ageing of human muscle. The number of satellite cells, although reduced in number in aged human muscles, has enough number of cell divisions left to ensure repair throughout the human life span. We propose that an active life, with sufficient general muscular activity, should be recommended to reduce the impairment of skeletal muscle function upon ageing.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Skin research and technology 8 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/aims: Vasodilation with increased cutaneous perfusion is an essential part of an irritant inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the high-resolution laser Doppler perfusion imaging (HR-LDPI) technique for investigating irritant skin reactions. Irritants may elicit clinically different reactions due to different skin penetration profiles and different modes of irritant action on the exposed tissue.Methods: Twelve subjects were tested on the forearms using 24 h occlusive application of three concentrations of the irritants sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON) and with the topical acne drug all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Cutaneous blood flow at baseline, the increase in cutaneous blood flow and the skin area having increased perfusion were measured on day 2, day 3 and day 5.Results: Based both on measurement of mean perfusion and area with increased perfusion, it was possible to differentiate between different clinical irritation grades on any study day. The area with increased perfusion exceeded the area with clinically visible skin reactions for irritant reactions of grade 1/2 and above. Irritant reactions for individual irritants could furthermore be typed using HR-LDPI. It was possible to differentiate between vehicle treatment and the different dose levels of the irritant compounds. A correlation was found between clinical scores for the individual irritants and the mean flow and the area with increased flow. The individual irritants could be differentiated due to different time courses of their skin irritation.Conclusion: Laser Doppler imaging was found to be an important new method for characterization and grading of the inflammatory response of single exposure irritant reactions. However, standardised study procedures cannot be emphasised enough in order to obtain reliable and useful data.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/aims:  A number of subjective methods have been used to quantify the extent of the cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. However, because of their subjective nature, significant differences in measurements may be seen between individual observers or laboratories unless thorough training is given to each observer.Methods:  Objective measurement of the DTH reaction using a hand-held spectrophotometer is described. Guinea pigs were primed using inoculation with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin and challenged five weeks later in the shaved flank with three doses of bovine purified protein derivative. The extent of the ensuing DTH reaction was measured 24 and 48 h later. Spectrophotometric measurement of the reaction site was compared with a control region of skin on each animal and expressed as the change within a standard colour space. Data obtained with the spectrophotometer was compared with the subjective measurement of the area of the DTH reaction by an experienced operator.Results: T he measurements obtained with the spectrophotometer correlated very closely with conventional measurement of the reaction area by a trained operator. The reaction size in square mm and changes along the red/green colour axis was correlated most strongly.Conclusion:  Spectrophotometric measurement of the DTH reaction had advantages over conventional measuring techniques in terms of speed, reproducibility and reduced operator to operator variation. We conclude that the cutaneous DTH reaction may be simply and objectively quantified with the use of a hand-held spectrophotometer.
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