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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study involved histometry of the healed tissues around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants in beagle dogs. In a split-mouth design, 19 submerged and 19 nonsubmerged commercially pure titanium implants, titanium plasma-sprayed in the bone anchoring part and smooth in the transmucosal portion were placed in the mandibles of 6 dogs. Oral hygiene was performed 3 times weekly. After 3 months of healing, transmucosal abutments were inserted in the submerged implants. Six weeks after second stage surgery, the dogs were sacrificed and specimens obtained and processed for histology and histometry. Using a light microscope and a digitizing pad, the distance from implant top to mucosa border (DIM), the extent of epithelial downgrowth (ED), the attachment level (AL). the length of connective tissue contact (CTC) and the distance of the first coronal alveolar bone contact from the implant top (DIB) were measured at the mesial and distal aspects. Means+standard deviations for submerged and nonsubmerged implants were calculated, with the dog being the unit of measure. No statistically significant differences between submerged and nonsubmerged implants here found for DIM, CTC and DIB. However, significant differences were observed for ED and AL. This study in beagle dogs indicates that the apical extension of the peri-implant epithelium is significantly greater and the attachment level significantly lower adjacent to submerged implants with second-stage transmucosal abutments than in nonsubmerged, one-stage implants.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: There is increasing interest in how pathways of tissue destruction around dental implants are similar as for teeth and how these pathways can be modulated to slow loss of supporting bone. The purposes of this study were to develop a short-term animal model to study the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, on slowing the rate of induced peri-implant bone resorption. A total of 20 cylindrical titanium implants were placed in 2 beagle dogs using a low-trauma surgical technique. During the 3-month healing period without functional loading of the implants, daily oral hygiene was performed to maintain a Gingival Index of 0 to 0.5. At completion of the healing period, a baseline evaluation was performed which included the uptake of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical (BSRU)99mtechnetium-tin-diphosphonate (99mTc-Sn-MDP) in peri-implant bone and standardized radiographs. Peri-implantitis was induced with 4-O silk ligatures, cessation of oral hygiene and soft diet. One beagle was given 0.02 mgikg of flurbiprofen by mouth; the other received a placebo. BSRU and radiographic height of bone were remeasured to calculate the rate of bone loss during the 60-day treatment period. The percent rate of bone loss during the study period was calculated from the radiographs using a computer-assisted method. The radiopharmaceutical uptake for the flurbiprofen-treated implants remained unchanged. However, BSRU for placebo-treated implants was significantly increased from baseline. Radiographic measurements of bone height revealed that the mean rate of bone loss around implants in the flurbiprofen-treated dog (0.066±0.351%/month) was significantly lower than the rate around implants in the placebo-treated dogs (5.729±0.384%/month) over the 60-day treatment period. These data indicate that peri-implant bone loss can be rapidly induced and measured in the beagle and that flurbiprofen. administered orally, can significantly decrease the rate of induced peri-implant bone loss.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Several parameters have been described to determine success or failure in long-term evaluations of dental implants. One of these parameters is the observation of changes in peri-implant bone levels. Studies on submerged implants have analyzed the bone level changes in the pre- and post-loading phases. No such data exist for intentionally nonsubmerged implants. The purposes of this study were: (1) to test the applicability and reproducibillity of a simple computer-assisted method in the evaluation of changes in peri-implant bone levels;(2) to establish a baseline for the longterm radiographic follow-up; and (3) to evaluate changes in crestal bone levels adjacent to nonsubmerged IT1 implants between the 1-year and 2-year examination. Standardized periapical radiographs were obtained from 80 implants at the l-year and 2-year follow-up examinations after their placement. The implants were located in different jaw areas of 55 patients and supported single crowns or short-span fixed partial dentures. For each implant, the distance from implant shoulder to first crestal bone contact (DIB) was measured at the proximal surfaces with a digitizer/computer assembly. Statistically significant greater mean DIB were found at the l-year (baseline) evaluation for: (I) maxillary sites overall (4.10 x 1.02 mm (SD)) compared with mandibular sites overall (3.61 ± 1.03 mm);(2) maxillary anterior sites (4.08 ± 0.97 mm) compared with mandibular posterior sites (3.60 ± 1.05 mm); and (3) maxillary posterior sites (4.13 ± 1.12 mm) compared with mandibular posterior sites. No statistically significant changes in DIB occurred in any of the jaw locations between the l-year and 2-year evaluations. These results indicate similar changes in peri-implant bone levels for non-submerged implants over a 2-year period 1 as reported for submerged fixtures.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The aim of the present study was (1) to test whether or not platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or commercially available fibrin can increase bone regeneration compared with non-treated defects and (2) to test whether or not PRP or fibrin increases bone regeneration when used as a delivery system for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In 16 New Zealand White rabbits, four evenly distributed 6 mm diameter defects were drilled into the calvarial bone. The following five treatment modalities were randomly allocated to all 64 defects: (0) untreated control, (1) fibrin alone, (2) PRP alone, (3) fibrin with 15 μg rhBMP-2 and (4) PRP with 15 μg rhBMP-2. For the fibrin gels and the PRP containing rhBMP-2, the 15 μg rhBMP-2 was incorporated by precipitation within the matrices before their gelation. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the calvarial bones were removed for histological preparation. The area fraction of newly formed bone was determined in vertical sections from the middle of the defect by applying histomorphometrical analysis. A mean area fraction of newly formed bone was found within the former defect of 23.4% (±13.5%) in the control sites, of 28.4% (±17.4%) in the fibrin sites and of 34.5% (±17.4%) in the PRP sites. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in bone formation between the three groups (ANOVA). Addition of 15 μg rhBMP-2 in the fibrin gel (59.9±20.3%) and the PRP gels (63.1±25.3%) increased bone formation significantly. No significant difference was observed between sites, where PRP or fibrin has been used as a delivery system for rhBMP-2 (ANOVA). In conclusion, the application of fibrin gels or PRP gels to bone defects is not superior to leaving the defect untreated. Regarding the amount of bone formation, the application of 15 μg rhBMP-2 in bone defects enhances the healing significantly at 4 weeks. In this animal model, commercially available fibrin and autologous PRP gels are equally effective as delivery systems for rhBMP-2.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acyclovir is rare. We report the 5th case of systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir contact dermatitis, with investigations made to determine an alternative antiviral treatment. A 23-year-old woman, after dermatitis while using Zovirax® cream, went on to develop urticaria after oral acyclovir. Patch tests were performed with the components of Zovirax® cream (acyclovir, propylene glycol and sodium lauryl sulfate) and with other antiviral drugs. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax® cream, acyclovir, valacyclovir and propylene glycol. Patch and prick tests with famciclovir were negative, but its oral administration caused an itchy erythematous dermatitis on the trunk and extremities. Our patient developed a systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir allergic contact dermatitis, with cross-reactions to valacyclovir and famciclovir. Their common chemical structure is the 2-aminopurine nucleus. It is probably this part of the molecule that provokes both contact allergy and systemic reactions. The only antiviral drugs not having this core are foscarnet and cidofovir, and these could therefore be alternatives.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fixed reconstructions on implant abutments may be a welcome modality in the treatmcnt of partially edentulous patients following the principle of a prophylactically oriented comprehensive care. The option to create artificial tissue integrated abutments widens the range of indications for fixed reconstructions. Risky long-span bridges as well as the preparation of intact teeth for bridge abutments may frequently be avoided. Never should the contours of the prosthesis interfere with the patient's performance of optimal plaque control. Furthermore, supportive periodontal therapy with regular maintenance visits may be provided to optimize a long-term prognosis of the dention as well as the tissue-integrated artificial abutments.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  In healthy young men, administration of a single light pulse (5000 lux for 3 hr) or a single melatonin pill (5 mg) at 20:40 hr under controlled constant routine conditions of 〈10 lux, yielded a phase delay and a phase advance, respectively, in the circadian marker of dim light melatonin onset 24 hr later. Phase shifts after combining the two interventions were additive. Melatonin suppression is not necessary for a phase shift by light, and melatonin is not a ‘weak’ Zeitgeber relative to bright light when ambient lighting is strictly controlled.
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  • 9
  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been postulated that the wound healing in a closed submerged location is one of the prerequisites for osseointegration of dental implants. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the tissue integration of intentionally non-submerged titanium implants inserted by a one-stage surgical procedure. 100 ITI implants were consecutively placed in 70 partially edentulous patients. After a healing period free of masticatory loading for at least 3 months, the implants were examined. The clinical status showed for all implants neither detectable mobility nor signs of a peri-implant infection. Therefore, prosthetic abutments were inserted, and the patients were restored with fixed partial dentures. All patients were regularly recalled at 3-month intervals, and no patient dropped out of the study. Thus, all 100 implants were re-evaluated 12 months following implantation. Plaque- and sulcus bleeding indices, probing depth, clinical attachment level, width of keratinized mucosa, and periotest scores were assessed. In addition, standardized radiographs were analyzed for the presence of peri-implant radiolucencies and for the location of alveolar bone levels around the implants. Based on predefined criteria, the implants were classified as successful or failing. 98 implants were considered successful, and 1 implant failing. The remaining implant exhibited a peri-implant infection requiring local and systemic antimicrobial treatment. The results of this short-term study indicate that intentionally non-submerged ITI implants yield a high predictability for successful tissue integration.
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