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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Ophthalmology ; Neurobiology ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Ophthalmology ; Neurobiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Introduction -- 2. Fundamental Retinal Circuitry for Circadian Rhythms -- 3. Circadian photoreception: from phototransduction to behaviour -- 4. Role of Melatonin and Dopamine in the Regulation of Retinal Circadian Rhythms -- 5. Circadian Organization of the Vertebrate Retina -- 6. Rhythmicity of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium -- 7. Retinal Circadian Rhythms in Mammals Revealed Using Electroretinography -- 8. Circadian Clock and Light Induced Retinal Damage -- 9. Circadian Rhythms and Vision in Zebrafish -- 10. Circadian Modulation of the Limulus Eye for Day and Night Vision -- 11. Molluscan Ocular Pacemakers: Lessons Learned. ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗
    Abstract: The retina plays a critical role in the organization of the circadian system by synchronizing the braiń€™s central clock with the external day through transduction of the daily light/dark cycle.℗ However, the substantial variation in luminance imposed on the retina between day and night also poses a challenge to its role as a sensory tissue ́€“ how is it possible to faithfully encode the enormous dynamic range of luminance that can exceed 10 orders of magnitude? The Retina and Circadian Rhythms summarizes the knowledge accumulated over the last 30 years about the organization of the retinal circadian clock in many different species, concentrating on the roles that this circadian system plays in retinal function. About the Series: The Springer Series in Vision Research is a comprehensive update and overview of cutting edge vision research, exploring, in depth, current breakthroughs at a conceptual level. It details the whole visual system, from molecular processes to anatomy, physiology and behavior and covers both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Each book in the Series is aimed at all individuals with interests in vision including advanced graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, established vision scientists and clinical investigators.The series editors are N. Justin Marshall, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia and Shaun P. Collin, Neuroecology Group within the School of Animal Biology and the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia
    Pages: VIII, 238 p. 50 illus., 33 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781461496137
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 x 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393366/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393366/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hibar, Derrek P -- Stein, Jason L -- Renteria, Miguel E -- Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro -- Desrivieres, Sylvane -- Jahanshad, Neda -- Toro, Roberto -- Wittfeld, Katharina -- Abramovic, Lucija -- Andersson, Micael -- Aribisala, Benjamin S -- Armstrong, Nicola J -- Bernard, Manon -- Bohlken, Marc M -- Boks, Marco P -- Bralten, Janita -- Brown, Andrew A -- Chakravarty, M Mallar -- Chen, Qiang -- Ching, Christopher R K -- Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel -- den Braber, Anouk -- Giddaluru, Sudheer -- Goldman, Aaron L -- Grimm, Oliver -- Guadalupe, Tulio -- Hass, Johanna -- Woldehawariat, Girma -- Holmes, Avram J -- Hoogman, Martine -- Janowitz, Deborah -- Jia, Tianye -- Kim, Sungeun -- Klein, Marieke -- Kraemer, Bernd -- Lee, Phil H -- Olde Loohuis, Loes M -- Luciano, Michelle -- Macare, Christine -- Mather, Karen A -- Mattheisen, Manuel -- Milaneschi, Yuri -- Nho, Kwangsik -- Papmeyer, Martina -- Ramasamy, Adaikalavan -- Risacher, Shannon L -- Roiz-Santianez, Roberto -- Rose, Emma J -- Salami, Alireza -- Samann, Philipp G -- Schmaal, Lianne -- Schork, Andrew J -- Shin, Jean -- Strike, Lachlan T -- Teumer, Alexander -- van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J -- van Eijk, Kristel R -- Walters, Raymond K -- Westlye, Lars T -- Whelan, Christopher D -- Winkler, Anderson M -- Zwiers, Marcel P -- Alhusaini, Saud -- Athanasiu, Lavinia -- Ehrlich, Stefan -- Hakobjan, Marina M H -- Hartberg, Cecilie B -- Haukvik, Unn K -- Heister, Angelien J G A M -- Hoehn, David -- Kasperaviciute, Dalia -- Liewald, David C M -- Lopez, Lorna M -- Makkinje, Remco R R -- Matarin, Mar -- Naber, Marlies A M -- McKay, D Reese -- Needham, Margaret -- Nugent, Allison C -- Putz, Benno -- Royle, Natalie A -- Shen, Li -- Sprooten, Emma -- Trabzuni, Daniah -- van der Marel, Saskia S L -- van Hulzen, Kimm J E -- Walton, Esther -- Wolf, Christiane -- Almasy, Laura -- Ames, David -- Arepalli, Sampath -- Assareh, Amelia A -- Bastin, Mark E -- Brodaty, Henry -- Bulayeva, Kazima B -- Carless, Melanie A -- Cichon, Sven -- Corvin, Aiden -- Curran, Joanne E -- Czisch, Michael -- de Zubicaray, Greig I -- Dillman, Allissa -- Duggirala, Ravi -- Dyer, Thomas D -- Erk, Susanne -- Fedko, Iryna O -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Foroud, Tatiana M -- Fox, Peter T -- Fukunaga, Masaki -- Gibbs, J Raphael -- Goring, Harald H H -- Green, Robert C -- Guelfi, Sebastian -- Hansell, Narelle K -- Hartman, Catharina A -- Hegenscheid, Katrin -- Heinz, Andreas -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Heslenfeld, Dirk J -- Hoekstra, Pieter J -- Holsboer, Florian -- Homuth, Georg -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Ikeda, Masashi -- Jack, Clifford R Jr -- Jenkinson, Mark -- Johnson, Robert -- Kanai, Ryota -- Keil, Maria -- Kent, Jack W Jr -- Kochunov, Peter -- Kwok, John B -- Lawrie, Stephen M -- Liu, Xinmin -- Longo, Dan L -- McMahon, Katie L -- Meisenzahl, Eva -- Melle, Ingrid -- Mohnke, Sebastian -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Mostert, Jeanette C -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Nalls, Michael A -- Nichols, Thomas E -- Nilsson, Lars G -- Nothen, Markus M -- Ohi, Kazutaka -- Olvera, Rene L -- Perez-Iglesias, Rocio -- Pike, G Bruce -- Potkin, Steven G -- Reinvang, Ivar -- Reppermund, Simone -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina -- Rosen, Glenn D -- Rujescu, Dan -- Schnell, Knut -- Schofield, Peter R -- Smith, Colin -- Steen, Vidar M -- Sussmann, Jessika E -- Thalamuthu, Anbupalam -- Toga, Arthur W -- Traynor, Bryan J -- Troncoso, Juan -- Turner, Jessica A -- Valdes Hernandez, Maria C -- van 't Ent, Dennis -- van der Brug, Marcel -- van der Wee, Nic J A -- van Tol, Marie-Jose -- Veltman, Dick J -- Wassink, Thomas H -- Westman, Eric -- Zielke, Ronald H -- Zonderman, Alan B -- Ashbrook, David G -- Hager, Reinmar -- Lu, Lu -- McMahon, Francis J -- Morris, Derek W -- Williams, Robert W -- Brunner, Han G -- Buckner, Randy L -- Buitelaar, Jan K -- Cahn, Wiepke -- Calhoun, Vince D -- Cavalleri, Gianpiero L -- Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto -- Dale, Anders M -- Davies, Gareth E -- Delanty, Norman -- Depondt, Chantal -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Drevets, Wayne C -- Espeseth, Thomas -- Gollub, Randy L -- Ho, Beng-Choon -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hosten, Norbert -- Kahn, Rene S -- Le Hellard, Stephanie -- Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas -- Muller-Myhsok, Bertram -- Nauck, Matthias -- Nyberg, Lars -- Pandolfo, Massimo -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Roffman, Joshua L -- Sisodiya, Sanjay M -- Smoller, Jordan W -- van Bokhoven, Hans -- van Haren, Neeltje E M -- Volzke, Henry -- Walter, Henrik -- Weiner, Michael W -- Wen, Wei -- White, Tonya -- Agartz, Ingrid -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Blangero, John -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Brouwer, Rachel M -- Cannon, Dara M -- Cookson, Mark R -- de Geus, Eco J C -- Deary, Ian J -- Donohoe, Gary -- Fernandez, Guillen -- Fisher, Simon E -- Francks, Clyde -- Glahn, David C -- Grabe, Hans J -- Gruber, Oliver -- Hardy, John -- Hashimoto, Ryota -- Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E -- Jonsson, Erik G -- Kloszewska, Iwona -- Lovestone, Simon -- Mattay, Venkata S -- Mecocci, Patrizia -- McDonald, Colm -- McIntosh, Andrew M -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Paus, Tomas -- Pausova, Zdenka -- Ryten, Mina -- Sachdev, Perminder S -- Saykin, Andrew J -- Simmons, Andy -- Singleton, Andrew -- Soininen, Hilkka -- Wardlaw, Joanna M -- Weale, Michael E -- Weinberger, Daniel R -- Adams, Hieab H H -- Launer, Lenore J -- Seiler, Stephan -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Chauhan, Ganesh -- Satizabal, Claudia L -- Becker, James T -- Yanek, Lisa -- van der Lee, Sven J -- Ebling, Maritza -- Fischl, Bruce -- Longstreth, W T Jr -- Greve, Douglas -- Schmidt, Helena -- Nyquist, Paul -- Vinke, Louis N -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Xue, Luting -- Mazoyer, Bernard -- Bis, Joshua C -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Seshadri, Sudha -- Ikram, M Arfan -- Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative -- CHARGE Consortium -- EPIGEN -- IMAGEN -- SYS -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Wright, Margaret J -- Schumann, Gunter -- Franke, Barbara -- Thompson, Paul M -- Medland, Sarah E -- 100309/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 104036/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701120/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1001245/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K99 LM011384/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- K99 MH101367/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MR/K026992/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P41 EB015922/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005134/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005146/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R00 LM011384/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG040060/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 EB015611/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- RF1 AG041915/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG049505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG021886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U54 EB020403/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001108/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001120/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):224-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14101. Epub 2015 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Imaging Genetics Center, Institute for Neuroimaging &Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90292, USA. ; 1] Imaging Genetics Center, Institute for Neuroimaging &Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90292, USA. [2] Neurogenetics Program, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [4] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; MRC-SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Laboratory of Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France. [2] Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unite de Recherche Associee (URA) 2182 Genes, Synapses and Cognition, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France. [3] Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris 75015, France. ; 1] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald 17487, Germany. [2] Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. ; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. ; Umea Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria. [3] Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; 1] Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. [2] School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia. ; The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [3] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0424, Norway. ; 1] Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal H4H 1R3, Canada. [2] Department of Psychiatry and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada. ; Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Imaging Genetics Center, Institute for Neuroimaging &Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90292, USA. [2] Interdepartmental Neuroscience Graduate Program, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Biological Psychology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam &EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University &VU Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 BT, The Netherlands. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway. [2] Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 5021, Norway. ; Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim 68159, Germany. ; 1] Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands. [2] International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Dresden 01307 Germany. ; Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. ; 1] Center for Neuroimaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [3] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; Center for Translational Research in Systems Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Goettingen 37075, Germany. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA. [4] Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. ; 1] Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark. [2] The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus and Copenhagen DK-8000, Denmark. [3] Center for integrated Sequencing, iSEQ, Aarhus University, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark. ; Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam 1081 HL, The Netherlands. ; Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. ; 1] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. [2] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; 1] Center for Neuroimaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander 39008, Spain. [2] Cibersam (Centro Investigacion Biomedica en Red Salud Mental), Madrid 28029, Spain. ; 1] Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group and Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. [2] Center for Translational Research on Adversity, Neurodevelopment and Substance Abuse (C-TRANS), Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21045, USA. ; 1] Umea Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. [2] Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany. ; 1] Multimodal Imaging Laboratory, Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. [2] Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92161, USA. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia. [2] School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. [3] Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald D-17475, Germany. ; 1] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Boston, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0424, Norway. [2] Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo 0373, Norway. ; 1] The Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada. ; 1] Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Dresden 01307 Germany. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Psychiatric Research and Development, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo 0319, Norway. ; NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. ; 1] UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom and Epilepsy Society, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK. ; Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [2] Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06106, USA. ; Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group and Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [3] Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; 1] Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [3] Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06106, USA. ; 1] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA. [2] University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. ; 1] National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne 3052, Australia. [2] Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3101, Australia. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [3] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [4] Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333, Russia. ; Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA. ; 1] Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel 4055, Switzerland. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, D-53127, Germany. [3] Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Julich, Julich, D-52425, Germany. [4] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Berlin 10117, Germany. ; Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. [2] South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. ; Biofunctional Imaging, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; 1] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3101, Australia. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; Departments of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake 470-1192, Japan. ; Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. ; FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. ; NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK. [2] Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney 2031, Australia. [2] School of Medical Sciences, UNSW, Sydney 2052, Australia. ; 1] Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Lymphocyte Cell Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 80336, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, D-53127, Germany. [2] Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Julich, Julich, D-52425, Germany. [3] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; 1] FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. [2] Department of Statistics &WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. ; 1] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, D-53127, Germany. [2] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Cibersam (Centro Investigacion Biomedica en Red Salud Mental), Madrid 28029, Spain. [2] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Department of Neurology, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2T9, Canada. [2] Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2T9, Canada. ; Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, California 92617, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo 0373, Norway. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of General Psychiatry, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69115, Germany. ; Department of Neuropathology, MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. ; Psychology Department and Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302, USA. ; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Psychiatry and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands. ; Neuroimaging Centre, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9713 AW, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-141 83, Sweden. ; Behavioral Epidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; 1] Center for Integrative and Translational Genomics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Genomics, and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. [3] Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Medical College of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China. ; 1] Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group and Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. [2] Cognitive Genetics and Therapy Group, School of Psychology &Discipline of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. ; 1] Center for Integrative and Translational Genomics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Genomics, and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. [3] Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. ; 1] The Mind Research Network &LBERI, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106, USA. [2] Department of ECE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA. ; 1] Center for Translational Imaging and Personalized Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. [2] Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology, Psychiatry, and Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; Avera Institute for Human Genetics, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57108, USA. ; 1] Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, The Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin 2, Ireland. [2] Neurology Division, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland. ; Department of Neurology, Hopital Erasme, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1070, Belgium. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0450, Norway. ; 1] Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Janssen Research &Development, Johnson &Johnson, Titusville, New Jersey 08560, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. [3] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; 1] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald 17487, Germany. [2] Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald D-17475, Germany. ; 1] Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany. [2] Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich 81377, Germany. [3] University of Liverpool, Institute of Translational Medicine, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK. ; Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom and Epilepsy Society, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA. [4] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA. ; 1] Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3000 CB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Psychiatric Research and Development, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo 0319, Norway. [3] Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; 1] Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. ; 1] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; 1] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. [2] Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. [2] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS Hospital Stralsund 18435, Germany. ; 1] Center for Translational Research in Systems Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Goettingen 37075, Germany. [2] Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany. ; Molecular Research Center for Children's Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; Medical University of Lodz, Lodz 90-419, Poland. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. [2] NIHR Dementia Biomedical Research Unit, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia 06156, Italy. ; Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. ; 1] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [2] Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. ; 1] Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto M6A 2E1, Canada. [2] Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto M5T 1R8, Canada. ; 1] The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada. [2] Departments of Physiology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E2, Canada. ; 1] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. ; 1] Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. [2] Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney 2031, Australia. ; 1] Center for Neuroimaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [3] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Berlin 10117, Germany. ; 1] Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. [2] Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. [3] Biomedical Research Unit for Dementia, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland. [2] Neurocentre Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. ; 1] Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, Neuroscience and the Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Department of Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Medical University Graz, Graz 8010, Austria. ; INSERM U897, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [2] Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; 1] Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. [3] Department of Psychology, Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. ; General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; 1] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. [2] Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; 1] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. [2] Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [3] Computer Science and AI Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; Department of Neurology University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria. ; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, UMR5296 CNRS, CEA and University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France. ; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; Icelandic Heart Association, University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia. [2] School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [3] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607358" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Aging/genetics ; Apoptosis/genetics ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Caudate Nucleus/anatomy & histology ; Child ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics ; Genetic Loci/genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hippocampus/anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Middle Aged ; Organ Size/genetics ; Putamen/anatomy & histology ; Sex Characteristics ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied 72 families with at least one child with cystic fibrosis (CF); they were referred because they had requested pre-natal diagnosis in a future pregnancy. The ΔF508 mutation was found in 108/140 CF chromosomes (77%). In 41/72 families (57%), both parents carried a deleted chromosome and the child was doubly deleted. In only 4 families, 2 of them being consanguineous, did neither parent carry a deleted chromosome. Meconium ileus was associated with children who were ΔF508/ΔF508, ΔF508/non-deleted and non-deleted/ non-deleted.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is caused by a variety of underlying defects. Approximately 40% of cases are thought to be of the X-linked type (SCIDX1), which is phenotypically characterised by the absence, or very low numbers, of T cells, but normal or even high B cell numbers. The gene responsible for SCIDX1 is that coding for the common γ chain (γc), a component of multiple cytokine receptors. Mutations in this gene have been demonstrated in a large number of boys affected by typical SCIDX1. We describe a sporadic case of a boy who had SCID with absent B cells and absent T cells, but in whom a mutation in the γc gene has been demonstrated. In the absence of a typical X-linked pedigree, the phenotype in this boy suggested an autosomal recessive form of SCID and the family would usually have been counselled accordingly. This family raises the question of the true frequency of SCIDX1 amongst sporadic male cases of SCID and highlights the need to screen these boys for γ chain mutations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Diffuse liver disease ; MRI ; CT ; Ultrasound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-nine patients with diffuse liver disease were examined by ultrasound, CT and MRI. MRI was performed using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences as well as fast gradient-echo-sequences. The paramagnetic contrast agent Gd-DTPA was applied intravenously (0.1 mmol/kg). in patients with hepatitis, MRI could be used in guiding liver biopsies as inflammatory changes were clearly delineated. CT and ultrasound were superior to MRI in the detection of focal or diffuse fatty degeneration. On the other hand MRI was more helpful in differentiating fatty changes and neoplasm. In liver cirrhosis, fibrotic changes were most clearly demonstrated by MRI. In patients suffering from hemochromatosis MRI offers advantages over CT and ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow up due to the paramagnetic properties of iron, resulting in a reduction in signal intensity. In patients with Wilson's disease a characteristic pattern of parenchymal changes was seen. Administration of Gd- DTPA contributes additional information about perfusion conditions in the liver parenchyma, however this information was not of diagnostic relevance in the cases we studied.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The N1303K mutation was identified in the second nucleotide binding fold of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene last year. We have gathered data from laboratories throughout Europe and the United States of America in order to estimate its frequency and to attempt to characterise the clinical manifestations of this mutation. N1303K, identified on 216 of nearly 15000 CF chromosomes tested, accounts for 1.5% of all CF chromosomes. The frequency of the N1303K allele varies significantly between countries and ethnic groups, being more common in Southern than in Northern Europe. This variation is independent of the AF508 allele. It was not found on UK Asian, American Black or Australian chromosomes. N1303K is associated with four different linked marker haplotypes for the polymorphic markers XV-2c, KM.19 and pMP6d-9. Ten patients are homozygous for this mutation, whereas 106 of the remainder carry one of 12 known CF mutations in the other CF allele. We classify N1303K as a “severe” mutation with respect to the pancreas, but can find no correlation between this mutation, in either the homozygous or heterozygous state, and the severity of lung disease.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: alfuzosin ; prazosin ; alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist ; noradrenaline ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In an open dose ranging study with random inclusion of placebo, alfuzosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) 1, 2.5 and 5 mg was administered to 6 healthy volunteers, 3 of the volunteers received 10 mg alfuzosin. Supine systolic blood (SBP) pressure was not reduced by alfuzosin although significant increases occurred in supine heart rate (HR) after 2.5 and 5 mg. In the standing position, SBP was reduced at 2 and 4 h with 5 mg alfuzosin; significant increases in HR occurred following 1, 2.5 and 5 mg at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after administration. Exercise SBP was not reduced; diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at 4 and 6 h with 5 mg alfuzosin. More marked effects were seen in the 3 subjects who received 10 mg alfuzosin. After 1 and 5 mg, tmax ranged from 1–2 h; Cmax (4.1 to 20.8 ng · ml−1; AUC (0–24) 20 to 132 ng · ml−1 · h (1 and 5 mg respectively) increased progressively with dose indicating dose dependent kinetics; no significant changes occurred in the visual analogue scale for sedation. A comparison of alfuzosin 5 mg, prazosin 1 mg and placebo each administered for 4 days, indicated that alfuzosin did not significantly reduce standing SBP on either Day 1 or Day 4; prazosin reduced SBP at 2 and 4 h on Day 1 and 6 h on Day 4 compared to placebo. Standing HR was increased by alfuzosin at 2 h on Day 1 and Day 4; increases occurred with prazosin at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h on Day 1 and 6 h on Day 4. Supine plasma noradrenaline increased with alfuzosin and prazosin at 2 and 4 h on Days 1 and 4; the increases were not significantly different. The plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) for alfuzosin was 3.4 h and 3.1 h after acute and chronic administration; (t1/2) for prazosin was 2.6 and 2.9 h. In conclusion alfuzosin causes small reductions in systolic blood pressure, accompanied by a dose dependent increase in heart rate in the supine and standing position and following exercise.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Captopril ; sublingual ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study we compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of captopril after sublingual and peroral administration. Single 25 mg doses of captopril were administered sublingually and perorally on two different occasions in a randomised cross-over fashion to eight healthy volunteers aged 22–35 years. The kinetics of unchanged captopril, plasma renin activity (PRA), BP and heart rate were studied over three hours after both peroral and sublingual administration of captopril. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after sublingual administration were: Cmax, 234 ng·ml−1; tmax, 45 min; AUC (0–3 h), 15.1 μg·ml−1. min. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after peroral administration were: Cmax, 228 ng·ml−1; tmax, 75 min; AUC (0–3 h), 17.0 μg·ml−1. min. tmax was significantly shorter when captopril was administered sublingually; all other pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. The plasma captopril concentrations achieved post drug administration led to increases in PRA and reductions in BP. tmax for PRA was 86 min for sublingual captopril and 113 min for perorally administered drug. Peak PRA values were, however, not significantly different. BP, as expected, was not reduced dramatically in these healthy volunteer subjects, however, in systolic BP vs time profiles, BP was significantly lower after volunteers received sublingual captopril. Heart rate increased slightly after captopril administration; there were no differences between the two routes of administration. Administration of captopril sublingually, therefore led to a more rapid attainment of plasma captopril concentrations and had a more rapid onset of pharmacological effect when compared with peroral administration.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Antihypertensives ; vasodilator ; PR-G-138-Cl
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary PR-G-138-Cl, a new antihypertensive agent with vasodilating properties, was studied in ten patients with moderate to severe hypertension. The patients were admitted to a metabolic ward and followed on a 2 gm salt diet. Placebo was given daily until blood pressure and weight were stabilized. A dose titration was then started with increasing single daily doses of 3, 5, 8, and 10 mg of PR-G-138-Cl orally. The dose at which the mean arterial pressure was reduced by 15 mm Hg was continued for a total of seven days. PR-G-138-Cl lowered sitting mean arterial pressures significantly in all subjects (133.8±15.1 → 116.0±12.4 mm Hg, p〈0.001). The antihypertensive effect was first noted 30 minutes following drug administration and persisted for as long as six hours with a peak effect at one hour. All patients had a significant increase in sitting pulse rate (80.4±9.11 → 90.0 ±6.91/min, p〈0.002). Blood pressure reduction and increase in pulse rate were dose related. The most common side effects noted were headaches in eight out of ten patients and postural dizziness in seven out of ten patients. There were no signs of fluid retention (weight gain or edema). Electrocardiogram and other laboratory parameters remained essentially unchanged.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Bile duct injury — Cholangiography — Common bile duct calculi — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of 950 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during an 8-year period was performed. For the first 2 years, IOC was performed selectively, and thereafter routinely. Results: Attempted in 896 patients, IOC was successful in 734 (82%). Bile duct stones were found in 77 patients (10%), dilated ducts without stones in 47 patients (6%), and anatomic variations in 4 patients (0.5%). There were four (0.4%) minor intraoperative complications related to the IOC, with no consequences for the patients. There were three (0.3%) minor injuries of the bile duct, which were identified with IOC and repaired at the time of cholecystectomy without any consequences for the patients. In two of these patients, the structure recognized and catheterized as the cystic duct was revealed by IOC to be the bile duct. Thus IOC prevented extension to a major common bile duct (CBD) injury. Conclusions: Findings show that IOC is a safe technique. Its routine use during laparoscopic cholecystectomy may not prevent bile duct injuries, but it minimizes the extent of the injury so that it can be repaired easily without any consequences for the patient. The prevention of a major bile duct injury makes IOC cost effective.
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