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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-11
    Description: The BRAF kinase is mutated, typically Val 600--〉Glu (V600E), to induce an active oncogenic state in a large fraction of melanomas, thyroid cancers, hairy cell leukaemias and, to a smaller extent, a wide spectrum of other cancers. BRAF(V600E) phosphorylates and activates the MEK1 and MEK2 kinases, which in turn phosphorylate and activate the ERK1 and ERK2 kinases, stimulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to promote cancer. Targeting MEK1/2 is proving to be an important therapeutic strategy, given that a MEK1/2 inhibitor provides a survival advantage in metastatic melanoma, an effect that is increased when administered together with a BRAF(V600E) inhibitor. We previously found that copper (Cu) influx enhances MEK1 phosphorylation of ERK1/2 through a Cu-MEK1 interaction. Here we show decreasing the levels of CTR1 (Cu transporter 1), or mutations in MEK1 that disrupt Cu binding, decreased BRAF(V600E)-driven signalling and tumorigenesis in mice and human cell settings. Conversely, a MEK1-MEK5 chimaera that phosphorylated ERK1/2 independently of Cu or an active ERK2 restored the tumour growth of murine cells lacking Ctr1. Cu chelators used in the treatment of Wilson disease decreased tumour growth of human or murine cells transformed by BRAF(V600E) or engineered to be resistant to BRAF inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that Cu-chelation therapy could be repurposed to treat cancers containing the BRAF(V600E) mutation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138975/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138975/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brady, Donita C -- Crowe, Matthew S -- Turski, Michelle L -- Hobbs, G Aaron -- Yao, Xiaojie -- Chaikuad, Apirat -- Knapp, Stefan -- Xiao, Kunhong -- Campbell, Sharon L -- Thiele, Dennis J -- Counter, Christopher M -- 092809/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 092809/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- CA094184/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA172104/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA178145/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK074192/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL075443/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K01 CA178145/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL075443/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014236/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016086/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA089614/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA094184/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK074192/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA172104/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007184/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008570/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 22;509(7501):492-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13180. Epub 2014 Apr 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Target Discovery Institute and Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. ; 1] Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA [2] Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717435" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cation Transport Proteins/deficiency/genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects ; Chelating Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Copper/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Repositioning ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects ; Female ; Hepatolenticular Degeneration/drug therapy ; Humans ; Indoles/pharmacology ; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Sulfonamides/pharmacology ; Survival Analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Objective Although the role of microRNA-17 (miR-17) has been identified as a tumour biomarker in various studies, its prognostic value in cancers remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyse and summarise the relationship between the miR-17 status and clinical outcome in a variety of human cancers. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Web of Science and Embase from the first year of records to 15 May 2017. Outcomes The patients’ survival results were pooled, and pooled HRs with 95% CIs were calculated and used for measuring the strength of association between miR-17 and the prognosis of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, osteosarcoma, glioma, T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and colon cancer. Heterogeneity, publication bias and subgroup analysis were also conducted. Results A total of 1096 patients were included in this meta-analysis from 12 articles. The results indicated that the increased expression of miR-17 played an unfavourable role in overall survival in various human carcinomas with the HR of 1.342 taking into account the publication bias. In subgroup analysis, HR of ethnicity (Caucasian HR=1.48 and Asian HR=1.40), disease (digestive system HR=1.36 and blood system cancer (HR=2.38), detection method (quantitative real-time PCR HR=1.40 and in situ hybridisation, HR=2.59) and detection sample (tissue HR=1.45 and serum HR=1.32) were significant with p〈0.05. For the analysis of disease-free survival and recurrence-free survival, the increased expression of miR-17 was associated with unfavourable prognosis (HR=1.40). Conclusions miR-17 may be a useful biomarker in predicting the clinical outcome of human cancers, but due to the limitations of the current studies, further verification of the role of miR-17 in human malignancies is urgently needed. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017065749
    Keywords: Open access, Genetics and genomics
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-21
    Description: A fasting mimetic diet blunts inflammation, and intermittent fasting has shown ameliorative effects in obese asthmatics. To examine whether canonical inflammatory pathways linked with asthma are modulated by fasting, we designed a pilot study in mild asthmatic subjects to assess the effect of fasting on the NLRP3 inflammasome, Th2 cell activation, and airway epithelial cell cytokine production. Subjects with documented reversible airway obstruction and stable mild asthma were recruited into this study in which pulmonary function testing (PFT) and PBMCextraction was performed 24 h after fasting, with repeated PFT testing and blood draw 2.5 h after refeeding. PFTs were not changed by a prolonged fast. However, steroid-naive mild asthmatics showed fasting-dependent blunting of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, PBMCs from these fasted asthmatics cocultured with human epithelial cells resulted in blunting of house dust mite–induced epithelial cell cytokine production and reduced CD4 + T cell Th2 activation compared with refed samples. This pilot study shows that prolonged fasting blunts the NLRP3 inflammasome and Th2 cell activation in steroid-naive asthmatics as well as diminishes airway epithelial cell cytokine production. This identifies a potential role for nutrient level–dependent regulation of inflammation in asthma. Our findings support the evaluation of this concept in a larger study as well as the potential development of caloric restriction interventions for the treatment of asthma.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Commensal bacteria are critical for physiological functions in the gut, and dysbiosis in the gut may cause diseases. In this article, we report that mice deficient in cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were defective in the development of colon mucosa and highly sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-elicited colitis, as well as azoxymethane-mediated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of CRAMP –/– mice with antibiotics markedly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting CRAMP as a limiting factor on dysbiosis in the colon. This was supported by observations that wild-type (WT) mice cohoused with CRAMP –/– mice became highly sensitive to DSS-induced colitis, and the composition of fecal microbiota was skewed by CRAMP deficiency. In particular, several bacterial species that are typically found in oral microbiota, such as Mogibacterium neglectum , Desulfovibrio piger , and Desulfomicrobium orale , were increased in feces of CRAMP –/– mice and were transferred to WT mice during cohousing. When littermates of CRAMP +/– parents were examined, the composition of the fecal microbiota of WT pups and heterozygous parents was similar. In contrast, although the difference in fecal microbiota between CRAMP –/– and WT pups was small early on after weaning and single mouse housing, there was an increasing divergence with prolonged single housing. These results indicate that CRAMP is critical in maintaining colon microbiota balance and supports mucosal homeostasis, anti-inflammatory responses, and protection from carcinogenesis.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Objectives To describe the clinical characteristics and management of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. Design This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. Setting 13 teaching hospitals in northern, central and southern China from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 Participants Information on hospitalised patients aged ≥14 years with radiographically confirmed pneumonia with illness onset in the community was collected using standard case report forms. Primary and secondary outcome measures Resource use for CAP management. Results Of 14 793 patients screened, 5828 with radiographically confirmed CAP were included in the final analysis. Low mortality risk patients with a CURB-65 score 0–1 and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class I–II accounted for 81.2% (4434/5594) and 56.4% (2034/3609) patients, respectively. 21.7% (1111/5130) patients had already achieved clinical stability on admission. A definite or probable pathogen was identified only in 12.7% (738/5828) patients. 40.9% (1575/3852) patients without pseudomonal infection risk factors received antimicrobial overtreatment regimens. The median duration between clinical stability to discharge was 5.0 days with 30-day mortality of 4.2%. Conclusions These data demonstrated the overuse of health resources in CAP management, indicating that there is potential for improvement and substantial savings to healthcare systems in China. Trial registration number NCT02489578 ; Results.
    Keywords: Open access, Infectious diseases
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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