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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-24
    Description: Scalable quantum computing can be achieved only if quantum bits are manipulated in a fault-tolerant fashion. Topological error correction--a method that combines topological quantum computation with quantum error correction--has the highest known tolerable error rate for a local architecture. The technique makes use of cluster states with topological properties and requires only nearest-neighbour interactions. Here we report the experimental demonstration of topological error correction with an eight-photon cluster state. We show that a correlation can be protected against a single error on any quantum bit. Also, when all quantum bits are simultaneously subjected to errors with equal probability, the effective error rate can be significantly reduced. Our work demonstrates the viability of topological error correction for fault-tolerant quantum information processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yao, Xing-Can -- Wang, Tian-Xiong -- Chen, Hao-Ze -- Gao, Wei-Bo -- Fowler, Austin G -- Raussendorf, Robert -- Chen, Zeng-Bing -- Liu, Nai-Le -- Lu, Chao-Yang -- Deng, You-Jin -- Chen, Yu-Ao -- Pan, Jian-Wei -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;482(7386):489-94. doi: 10.1038/nature10770.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Branch, National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Shanghai 201315, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22358838" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering approximately 4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for approximately 60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate- and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207357/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207357/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin -- Garber, Manuel -- Zuk, Or -- Lin, Michael F -- Parker, Brian J -- Washietl, Stefan -- Kheradpour, Pouya -- Ernst, Jason -- Jordan, Gregory -- Mauceli, Evan -- Ward, Lucas D -- Lowe, Craig B -- Holloway, Alisha K -- Clamp, Michele -- Gnerre, Sante -- Alfoldi, Jessica -- Beal, Kathryn -- Chang, Jean -- Clawson, Hiram -- Cuff, James -- Di Palma, Federica -- Fitzgerald, Stephen -- Flicek, Paul -- Guttman, Mitchell -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- Jaffe, David B -- Jungreis, Irwin -- Kent, W James -- Kostka, Dennis -- Lara, Marcia -- Martins, Andre L -- Massingham, Tim -- Moltke, Ida -- Raney, Brian J -- Rasmussen, Matthew D -- Robinson, Jim -- Stark, Alexander -- Vilella, Albert J -- Wen, Jiayu -- Xie, Xiaohui -- Zody, Michael C -- Broad Institute Sequencing Platform and Whole Genome Assembly Team -- Baldwin, Jen -- Bloom, Toby -- Chin, Chee Whye -- Heiman, Dave -- Nicol, Robert -- Nusbaum, Chad -- Young, Sarah -- Wilkinson, Jane -- Worley, Kim C -- Kovar, Christie L -- Muzny, Donna M -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center Sequencing Team -- Cree, Andrew -- Dihn, Huyen H -- Fowler, Gerald -- Jhangiani, Shalili -- Joshi, Vandita -- Lee, Sandra -- Lewis, Lora R -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Okwuonu, Geoffrey -- Santibanez, Jireh -- Warren, Wesley C -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Weinstock, George M -- Wilson, Richard K -- Genome Institute at Washington University -- Delehaunty, Kim -- Dooling, David -- Fronik, Catrina -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Fulton, Bob -- Graves, Tina -- Minx, Patrick -- Sodergren, Erica -- Birney, Ewan -- Margulies, Elliott H -- Herrero, Javier -- Green, Eric D -- Haussler, David -- Siepel, Adam -- Goldman, Nick -- Pollard, Katherine S -- Pedersen, Jakob S -- Lander, Eric S -- Kellis, Manolis -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- GM82901/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003474/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067-09/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7370):476-82. doi: 10.1038/nature10530.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. kersli@broadinstitute.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993624" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Disease ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Exons/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Health ; Humans ; Mammals/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Phylogeny ; RNA/classification/genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-25
    Description: A quantum computer can solve hard problems, such as prime factoring, database searching and quantum simulation, at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection by distributing a logical state among many physical quantum bits (qubits) by means of quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is a useful phenomenon in this regard, because it allows the construction of large quantum circuits and is compatible with microfabrication. For superconducting qubits, the surface code approach to quantum computing is a natural choice for error correction, because it uses only nearest-neighbour coupling and rapidly cycled entangling gates. The gate fidelity requirements are modest: the per-step fidelity threshold is only about 99 per cent. Here we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in a superconducting multi-qubit processor, achieving an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 99.92 per cent and a two-qubit gate fidelity of up to 99.4 per cent. This places Josephson quantum computing at the fault-tolerance threshold for surface code error correction. Our quantum processor is a first step towards the surface code, using five qubits arranged in a linear array with nearest-neighbour coupling. As a further demonstration, we construct a five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using the complete circuit and full set of gates. The results demonstrate that Josephson quantum computing is a high-fidelity technology, with a clear path to scaling up to large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum circuits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barends, R -- Kelly, J -- Megrant, A -- Veitia, A -- Sank, D -- Jeffrey, E -- White, T C -- Mutus, J -- Fowler, A G -- Campbell, B -- Chen, Y -- Chen, Z -- Chiaro, B -- Dunsworth, A -- Neill, C -- O'Malley, P -- Roushan, P -- Vainsencher, A -- Wenner, J -- Korotkov, A N -- Cleland, A N -- Martinis, John M -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508(7497):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature13171.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA [2]. ; Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. ; Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA. ; 1] Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA [2] Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759412" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-03-06
    Description: Quantum computing becomes viable when a quantum state can be protected from environment-induced error. If quantum bits (qubits) are sufficiently reliable, errors are sparse and quantum error correction (QEC) is capable of identifying and correcting them. Adding more qubits improves the preservation of states by guaranteeing that increasingly larger clusters of errors will not cause logical failure-a key requirement for large-scale systems. Using QEC to extend the qubit lifetime remains one of the outstanding experimental challenges in quantum computing. Here we report the protection of classical states from environmental bit-flip errors and demonstrate the suppression of these errors with increasing system size. We use a linear array of nine qubits, which is a natural step towards the two-dimensional surface code QEC scheme, and track errors as they occur by repeatedly performing projective quantum non-demolition parity measurements. Relative to a single physical qubit, we reduce the failure rate in retrieving an input state by a factor of 2.7 when using five of our nine qubits and by a factor of 8.5 when using all nine qubits after eight cycles. Additionally, we tomographically verify preservation of the non-classical Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The successful suppression of environment-induced errors will motivate further research into the many challenges associated with building a large-scale superconducting quantum computer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kelly, J -- Barends, R -- Fowler, A G -- Megrant, A -- Jeffrey, E -- White, T C -- Sank, D -- Mutus, J Y -- Campbell, B -- Chen, Yu -- Chen, Z -- Chiaro, B -- Dunsworth, A -- Hoi, I-C -- Neill, C -- O'Malley, P J J -- Quintana, C -- Roushan, P -- Vainsencher, A -- Wenner, J -- Cleland, A N -- Martinis, John M -- England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 5;519(7541):66-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. ; 1] Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA [2] Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; 1] Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA [2] Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25739628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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