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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-08
    Description: Publisher Correction: Cold-induced epigenetic programming of the sperm enhances brown adipose tissue activity in the offspring Publisher Correction: Cold-induced epigenetic programming of the sperm enhances brown adipose tissue activity in the offspring, Published online: 07 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0163-y Publisher Correction: Cold-induced epigenetic programming of the sperm enhances brown adipose tissue activity in the offspring
    Print ISSN: 1078-8956
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-170X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-21
    Description: Selective gene dependencies in MYCN -amplified neuroblastoma include the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry Selective gene dependencies in 〈i〉MYCN〈/i〉-amplified neuroblastoma include the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0191-z This study identifies a set of critical dependency genes in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma that make up the oncogenic transcriptional regulatory circuitry underlying cell state and tumor survival.
    Print ISSN: 1061-4036
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1718
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: The importance of B cell receptor isotypes and stereotypes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia The importance of B cell receptor isotypes and stereotypes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Published online: 16 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41375-018-0303-x The importance of B cell receptor isotypes and stereotypes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Print ISSN: 0887-6924
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5551
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-09-19
    Description: We sequenced the genomes of a approximately 7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight approximately 8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had approximately 44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170574/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170574/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lazaridis, Iosif -- Patterson, Nick -- Mittnik, Alissa -- Renaud, Gabriel -- Mallick, Swapan -- Kirsanow, Karola -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Schraiber, Joshua G -- Castellano, Sergi -- Lipson, Mark -- Berger, Bonnie -- Economou, Christos -- Bollongino, Ruth -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Bos, Kirsten I -- Nordenfelt, Susanne -- Li, Heng -- de Filippo, Cesare -- Prufer, Kay -- Sawyer, Susanna -- Posth, Cosimo -- Haak, Wolfgang -- Hallgren, Fredrik -- Fornander, Elin -- Rohland, Nadin -- Delsate, Dominique -- Francken, Michael -- Guinet, Jean-Michel -- Wahl, Joachim -- Ayodo, George -- Babiker, Hamza A -- Bailliet, Graciela -- Balanovska, Elena -- Balanovsky, Oleg -- Barrantes, Ramiro -- Bedoya, Gabriel -- Ben-Ami, Haim -- Bene, Judit -- Berrada, Fouad -- Bravi, Claudio M -- Brisighelli, Francesca -- Busby, George B J -- Cali, Francesco -- Churnosov, Mikhail -- Cole, David E C -- Corach, Daniel -- Damba, Larissa -- van Driem, George -- Dryomov, Stanislav -- Dugoujon, Jean-Michel -- Fedorova, Sardana A -- Gallego Romero, Irene -- Gubina, Marina -- Hammer, Michael -- Henn, Brenna M -- Hervig, Tor -- Hodoglugil, Ugur -- Jha, Aashish R -- Karachanak-Yankova, Sena -- Khusainova, Rita -- Khusnutdinova, Elza -- Kittles, Rick -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Klitz, William -- Kucinskas, Vaidutis -- Kushniarevich, Alena -- Laredj, Leila -- Litvinov, Sergey -- Loukidis, Theologos -- Mahley, Robert W -- Melegh, Bela -- Metspalu, Ene -- Molina, Julio -- Mountain, Joanna -- Nakkalajarvi, Klemetti -- Nesheva, Desislava -- Nyambo, Thomas -- Osipova, Ludmila -- Parik, Juri -- Platonov, Fedor -- Posukh, Olga -- Romano, Valentino -- Rothhammer, Francisco -- Rudan, Igor -- Ruizbakiev, Ruslan -- Sahakyan, Hovhannes -- Sajantila, Antti -- Salas, Antonio -- Starikovskaya, Elena B -- Tarekegn, Ayele -- Toncheva, Draga -- Turdikulova, Shahlo -- Uktveryte, Ingrida -- Utevska, Olga -- Vasquez, Rene -- Villena, Mercedes -- Voevoda, Mikhail -- Winkler, Cheryl A -- Yepiskoposyan, Levon -- Zalloua, Pierre -- Zemunik, Tatijana -- Cooper, Alan -- Capelli, Cristian -- Thomas, Mark G -- Ruiz-Linares, Andres -- Tishkoff, Sarah A -- Singh, Lalji -- Thangaraj, Kumarasamy -- Villems, Richard -- Comas, David -- Sukernik, Rem -- Metspalu, Mait -- Meyer, Matthias -- Eichler, Evan E -- Burger, Joachim -- Slatkin, Montgomery -- Paabo, Svante -- Kelso, Janet -- Reich, David -- Krause, Johannes -- 8DP1ES022577-04/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM40282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN26120080001E/PHS HHS/ -- P01 HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):409-13. doi: 10.1038/nature13673.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Tubingen 72074, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany. ; Institute of Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz D-55128, Germany. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140, USA. ; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, 114 18, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany. [3] Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100049, China. ; Australian Centre for Ancient DNA and Environment Institute, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. ; The Cultural Heritage Foundation, Vasteras 722 12, Sweden. ; 1] National Museum of Natural History, L-2160, Luxembourg. [2] National Center of Archaeological Research, National Museum of History and Art, L-2345, Luxembourg. ; Department of Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, University of Tubingen, Tubingen D-72070, Germany. ; National Museum of Natural History, L-2160, Luxembourg. ; State Office for Cultural Heritage Management Baden-Wurttemberg, Osteology, Konstanz D-78467, Germany. ; Center for Global Health and Child Development, Kisumu 40100, Kenya. ; 1] Institutes of Evolution, Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. [2] Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkhod, Muscat 123, Oman. ; Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular Poblacional, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), CCT-CONICET &CICPBA, La Plata, B1906APO, Argentina. ; Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow 115478, Russia. ; 1] Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow 115478, Russia. [2] Vavilov Institute for General Genetics, Moscow 119991, Russia. ; Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica. ; Institute of Biology, Research group GENMOL, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. ; Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa 31096, Israel. ; Department of Medical Genetics and Szentagothai Research Center, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624, Hungary. ; Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (AUI), School of Science and Engineering, Ifrane 53000, Morocco. ; Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Legal Medicine, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy. ; 1] Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Laboratorio di Genetica Molecolare, IRCCS Associazione Oasi Maria SS, Troina 94018, Italy. ; Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015, Russia. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L5, Canada. ; Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1113 CABA, Argentina. ; Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Institute of Linguistics, University of Bern, Bern CH-3012, Switzerland. ; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Anthropologie Moleculaire et Imagerie de Synthese, CNRS UMR 5288, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, Toulouse 31000, France. ; North-Eastern Federal University and Yakut Research Center of Complex Medical Problems, Yakutsk 677013, Russia. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; ARL Division of Biotechnology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA. ; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen 5021, Norway. ; NextBio, Illumina, Santa Clara, California 95050, USA. ; Department of Medical Genetics, National Human Genome Center, Medical University Sofia, Sofia 1431, Bulgaria. ; 1] Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia. [2] Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia. ; College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA. ; Division of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140, USA. ; Department of Human and Medical Genetics, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT-08661, Lithuania. ; Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; Translational Medicine and Neurogenetics, Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch 67404, France. ; 1] Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia. [2] Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia. [3] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Amgen, 33 Kazantzaki Str, Ilioupolis 16342, Athens, Greece (T.L.); Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India (L.S.). ; Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas de Guatemala, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala. ; Research Department, 23andMe, Mountain View, California 94043, USA. ; Cultural Anthropology Program, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland. ; Department of Biochemistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam 65001, Tanzania. ; Research Institute of Health, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk 677000, Russia. ; Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo 90128, Italy. ; 1] Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica 1000000, Chile. [2] Programa de Genetica Humana ICBM Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile. [3] Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, Arica 1000000, Chile. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; 1] Institute of Immunology, Academy of Science, Tashkent 70000, Uzbekistan. [2]. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. [2] Laboratory of Ethnogenomics, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan 0014, Armenia. ; 1] Department of Forensic Medicine, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland. [2] Institute of Applied Genetics, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76107, USA. ; Unidade de Xenetica, Departamento de Anatomia Patoloxica e Ciencias Forenses, and Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Grupo de Medicina Xenomica (GMX), Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galcia 15872, Spain. ; Research Fellow, Henry Stewart Group, Russell House, London WC1A 2HN, UK. ; Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent 100125, Uzbekistan. ; Department of Genetics and Cytology, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv 61077, Ukraine. ; 1] Instituto Boliviano de Biologia de la Altura, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, 591 2 La Paz, Bolivia. [2] UniversidadAutonoma Tomas Frias, Potosi, Bolivia. ; 1] Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. [2] Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk 630089, Russia. [3] Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Basic Research Laboratory, NCI, NIH, Frederick National Laboratory, Leidos Biomedical, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Laboratory of Ethnogenomics, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan 0014, Armenia. ; 1] Lebanese American University, School of Medicine, Beirut 13-5053, Lebanon. [2] Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Medical Biology, University of Split, School of Medicine, Split 21000, Croatia. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Biology and Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; 1] CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India. [2] Amgen, 33 Kazantzaki Str, Ilioupolis 16342, Athens, Greece (T.L.); Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India (L.S.). ; CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. [2] Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [3] Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn 10130, Estonia. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Tubingen 72074, Germany. [2] Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tubingen, 72070 Tubingen, Germany. [3] Max Planck Institut fur Geschichte und Naturwissenschaften, Jena 07745, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230663" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history/manpower ; Asia/ethnology ; Europe ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Population Dynamics ; Principal Component Analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional repression of promoters and is essential for mammalian development. Establishment of DNA methylation is mediated by the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, whereas DNMT1 ensures maintenance of methylation through replication. Absence of these enzymes is lethal, and somatic mutations in these genes have been associated with several human diseases. How genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated remains poorly understood, as the mechanisms that guide recruitment and activity of DNMTs in vivo are largely unknown. To gain insights into this matter we determined genomic binding and site-specific activity of the mammalian de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. We show that both enzymes localize to methylated, CpG-dense regions in mouse stem cells, yet are excluded from active promoters and enhancers. By specifically measuring sites of de novo methylation, we observe that enzymatic activity reflects binding. De novo methylation increases with CpG density, yet is excluded from nucleosomes. Notably, we observed selective binding of DNMT3B to the bodies of transcribed genes, which leads to their preferential methylation. This targeting to transcribed sequences requires SETD2-mediated methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and a functional PWWP domain of DNMT3B. Together these findings reveal how sequence and chromatin cues guide de novo methyltransferase activity to ensure methylome integrity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baubec, Tuncay -- Colombo, Daniele F -- Wirbelauer, Christiane -- Schmidt, Juliane -- Burger, Lukas -- Krebs, Arnaud R -- Akalin, Altuna -- Schubeler, Dirk -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):243-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14176. Epub 2015 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, Faculty of Sciences, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; CpG Islands/genetics ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase/chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA Methylation/*genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/enzymology/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Lysine/metabolism ; Mice ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Transport ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-08
    Description: Author Correction: Cold-induced epigenetic programming of the sperm enhances brown adipose tissue activity in the offspring Author Correction: Cold-induced epigenetic programming of the sperm enhances brown adipose tissue activity in the offspring, Published online: 07 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0162-z Author Correction: Cold-induced epigenetic programming of the sperm enhances brown adipose tissue activity in the offspring
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Genome-scale analysis identifies paralog lethality as a vulnerability of chromosome 1p loss in cancer Genome-scale analysis identifies paralog lethality as a vulnerability of chromosome 1p loss in cancer, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0155-3 Analysis of paralog gene pairs using data from loss-of-function genetic screens in cancer cells identifies MAGOH and MAGOHB as reciprocal paralog dependencies across cancer types.
    Print ISSN: 1061-4036
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Methylation of cytosines is an essential epigenetic modification in mammalian genomes, yet the rules that govern methylation patterns remain largely elusive. To gain insights into this process, we generated base-pair-resolution mouse methylomes in stem cells and neuronal progenitors. Advanced quantitative analysis identified low-methylated regions (LMRs) with an average methylation of 30%. These represent CpG-poor distal regulatory regions as evidenced by location, DNase I hypersensitivity, presence of enhancer chromatin marks and enhancer activity in reporter assays. LMRs are occupied by DNA-binding factors and their binding is necessary and sufficient to create LMRs. A comparison of neuronal and stem-cell methylomes confirms this dependency, as cell-type-specific LMRs are occupied by cell-type-specific transcription factors. This study provides methylome references for the mouse and shows that DNA-binding factors locally influence DNA methylation, enabling the identification of active regulatory regions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stadler, Michael B -- Murr, Rabih -- Burger, Lukas -- Ivanek, Robert -- Lienert, Florian -- Scholer, Anne -- van Nimwegen, Erik -- Wirbelauer, Christiane -- Oakeley, Edward J -- Gaidatzis, Dimos -- Tiwari, Vijay K -- Schubeler, Dirk -- England -- Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7378):490-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10716.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170606" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; CpG Islands ; Cytosine/*metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology ; *Epigenomics ; Mice ; Neurons/cytology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Stem Cells/cytology ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-05-24
    Description: The idea of 'frozen-in' magnetic field lines for ideal plasmas is useful to explain diverse astrophysical phenomena, for example the shedding of excess angular momentum from protostars by twisting of field lines frozen into the interstellar medium. Frozen-in field lines, however, preclude the rapid changes in magnetic topology observed at high conductivities, as in solar flares. Microphysical plasma processes are a proposed explanation of the observed high rates, but it is an open question whether such processes can rapidly reconnect astrophysical flux structures much greater in extent than several thousand ion gyroradii. An alternative explanation is that turbulent Richardson advection brings field lines implosively together from distances far apart to separations of the order of gyroradii. Here we report an analysis of a simulation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at high conductivity that exhibits Richardson dispersion. This effect of advection in rough velocity fields, which appear non-differentiable in space, leads to line motions that are completely indeterministic or 'spontaneously stochastic', as predicted in analytical studies. The turbulent breakdown of standard flux freezing at scales greater than the ion gyroradius can explain fast reconnection of very large-scale flux structures, both observed (solar flares and coronal mass ejections) and predicted (the inner heliosheath, accretion disks, gamma-ray bursts and so on). For laminar plasma flows with smooth velocity fields or for low turbulence intensity, stochastic flux freezing reduces to the usual frozen-in condition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eyink, Gregory -- Vishniac, Ethan -- Lalescu, Cristian -- Aluie, Hussein -- Kanov, Kalin -- Burger, Kai -- Burns, Randal -- Meneveau, Charles -- Szalay, Alexander -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 23;497(7450):466-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12128.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Mathematics & Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA. eyink@jhu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698445" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Evolution of CLL treatment — from chemoimmunotherapy to targeted and individualized therapy Evolution of CLL treatment — from chemoimmunotherapy to targeted and individualized therapy, Published online: 18 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41571-018-0037-8 In recent years, a number of novel agents have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Herein, Jan A. Burger and Susan O’Brien outline the emerging paradigm of individualized therapy for patients with CLL aimed at exploiting the advantages of these novel agents but also integrating traditional therapies for selected patients.
    Print ISSN: 1759-4774
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-4782
    Topics: Medicine
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