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    Publication Date: 2012-10-30
    Description: Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530898/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530898/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Biankin, Andrew V -- Waddell, Nicola -- Kassahn, Karin S -- Gingras, Marie-Claude -- Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B -- Johns, Amber L -- Miller, David K -- Wilson, Peter J -- Patch, Ann-Marie -- Wu, Jianmin -- Chang, David K -- Cowley, Mark J -- Gardiner, Brooke B -- Song, Sarah -- Harliwong, Ivon -- Idrisoglu, Senel -- Nourse, Craig -- Nourbakhsh, Ehsan -- Manning, Suzanne -- Wani, Shivangi -- Gongora, Milena -- Pajic, Marina -- Scarlett, Christopher J -- Gill, Anthony J -- Pinho, Andreia V -- Rooman, Ilse -- Anderson, Matthew -- Holmes, Oliver -- Leonard, Conrad -- Taylor, Darrin -- Wood, Scott -- Xu, Qinying -- Nones, Katia -- Fink, J Lynn -- Christ, Angelika -- Bruxner, Tim -- Cloonan, Nicole -- Kolle, Gabriel -- Newell, Felicity -- Pinese, Mark -- Mead, R Scott -- Humphris, Jeremy L -- Kaplan, Warren -- Jones, Marc D -- Colvin, Emily K -- Nagrial, Adnan M -- Humphrey, Emily S -- Chou, Angela -- Chin, Venessa T -- Chantrill, Lorraine A -- Mawson, Amanda -- Samra, Jaswinder S -- Kench, James G -- Lovell, Jessica A -- Daly, Roger J -- Merrett, Neil D -- Toon, Christopher -- Epari, Krishna -- Nguyen, Nam Q -- Barbour, Andrew -- Zeps, Nikolajs -- Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative -- Kakkar, Nipun -- Zhao, Fengmei -- Wu, Yuan Qing -- Wang, Min -- Muzny, Donna M -- Fisher, William E -- Brunicardi, F Charles -- Hodges, Sally E -- Reid, Jeffrey G -- Drummond, Jennifer -- Chang, Kyle -- Han, Yi -- Lewis, Lora R -- Dinh, Huyen -- Buhay, Christian J -- Beck, Timothy -- Timms, Lee -- Sam, Michelle -- Begley, Kimberly -- Brown, Andrew -- Pai, Deepa -- Panchal, Ami -- Buchner, Nicholas -- De Borja, Richard -- Denroche, Robert E -- Yung, Christina K -- Serra, Stefano -- Onetto, Nicole -- Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata -- Tsao, Ming-Sound -- Shaw, Patricia A -- Petersen, Gloria M -- Gallinger, Steven -- Hruban, Ralph H -- Maitra, Anirban -- Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A -- Schulick, Richard D -- Wolfgang, Christopher L -- Morgan, Richard A -- Lawlor, Rita T -- Capelli, Paola -- Corbo, Vincenzo -- Scardoni, Maria -- Tortora, Giampaolo -- Tempero, Margaret A -- Mann, Karen M -- Jenkins, Nancy A -- Perez-Mancera, Pedro A -- Adams, David J -- Largaespada, David A -- Wessels, Lodewyk F A -- Rust, Alistair G -- Stein, Lincoln D -- Tuveson, David A -- Copeland, Neal G -- Musgrove, Elizabeth A -- Scarpa, Aldo -- Eshleman, James R -- Hudson, Thomas J -- Sutherland, Robert L -- Wheeler, David A -- Pearson, John V -- McPherson, John D -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Grimmond, Sean M -- 13031/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 2P50CA101955/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA134292/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA101955/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA102701/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA062924/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097075/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA97075/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 15;491(7424):399-405. doi: 10.1038/nature11547. Epub 2012 Oct 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, 370 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103869" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/*metabolism ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/*genetics/*pathology ; Gene Dosage ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Kaplan-Meier Estimate ; Mice ; Mutation ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*genetics/*pathology ; Proteins/genetics ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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