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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: EZR, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family, is involved in multiple aspects of cell migration and cancer. SMYD3, a histone H3–lysine 4 (H3–K4)-specific methyltransferase, regulates EZR gene transcription, but the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation remain ill-defined. Here, we show that antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1 was positively correlated with EZR expression in both human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines. Both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that EZR-AS1 promoted cell migration through up-regulation of EZR expression. Mechanistically, antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1 formed a complex with RNA polymerase II to activate the transcription of EZR. Moreover, EZR-AS1 could recruit SMYD3 to a binding site, present in a GC-rich region downstream of the EZR promoter, causing the binding of SMYD3 and local enrichment of H3K4me3. Finally, the interaction of EZR-AS1 with SMYD3 further enhanced EZR transcription and expression. Our findings suggest that antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1, as a member of an RNA polymerase complex and through enhanced SMYD3-dependent H3K4 methylation, plays an important role in enhancing transcription of the EZR gene to promote the mobility and invasiveness of human cancer cells.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Guanine-rich and cytosine-rich DNA can form four-stranded DNA secondary structures called G-quadruplex (G4) and i-motif, respectively. These structures widely exist in genomes and play important roles in transcription, replication, translation and protection of telomeres. In this study, G4 and i-motif structures were identified in the promoter of the transcription factor gene BmPOUM2 , which regulates the expression of the wing disc cuticle protein gene ( BmWCP4 ) during metamorphosis. Disruption of the i-motif structure by base mutation, anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASOs) or inhibitory ligands resulted in significant decrease in the activity of the BmPOUM2 promoter. A novel i-motif binding protein (BmILF) was identified by pull-down experiment. BmILF specifically bound to the i-motif and activated the transcription of BmPOUM2 . The promoter activity of BmPOUM2 was enhanced when BmILF was over-expressed and decreased when BmILF was knocked-down by RNA interference. This study for the first time demonstrated that BmILF and the i-motif structure participated in the regulation of gene transcription in insect metamorphosis and provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of the secondary structures in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Background The natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was divided into 4 phases. Patients in the inactive carrier (IC) status and immune tolerant (IT) phase had normal alanine aminotransferase levels but huge different viral loads. The mechanism underlying low viral replication status in IC phase is unknown. Methods We determined the intrahepatic transcriptomes of 83 chronic hepatitis B patients by microarray analysis of liver biopsies, and screened the effect of differentially regulated genes on HBV replication using specific small interfering RNAs in vitro. Results The gene profile distinguishing active chronic hepatitis from IT and IC was predominantly composed of immune-related genes. The liver transcriptomes between the IT and IC phase were largely similar, and 109 expressed genes were significantly different. By performing systematic screening, 5 candidate genes including EVA1A , which were expressed at a relative higher level in IC phase than IT, were identified to regulate HBV replication and gene expression in cellular models. Conclusions The immune-related pathways were up-regulated in the active chronic hepatitis phase but not in the IT and IC phase. A number of intrahepatic genes highly expressed in the IC phase may participate in the control of HBV replication and determine the inactive status of HBV infection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1899
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-6613
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The combination of an increasing number of new cancer cases and improving survival rates has led to a large and rapidly growing population with unique health-care requirements. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help address the issues faced by cancer patients. Supported by a growing body of research, major health organizations commonly identify the importance of incorporating exercise in cancer care and advise patients to be physically active. This systematic review comprehensively summarizes the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial evidence investigating the role of exercise in the management of cancer. Literature searches focused on determining the potential impact of exercise on 1) cancer mortality and recurrence and 2) adverse effects of cancer and its treatment. A total of 100 studies were reviewed involving thousands of individual patients whose exercise behavior was assessed following the diagnosis of any type of cancer. Compared with patients who performed no/less exercise, patients who exercised following a diagnosis of cancer were observed to have a lower relative risk of cancer mortality and recurrence and experienced fewer/less severe adverse effects. The findings of this review support the view that exercise is an important adjunct therapy in the management of cancer. Implications on cancer care policy and practice are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0193-936X
    Electronic ISSN: 1478-6729
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) are evolutionarily conserved DNA sequences that do not encode proteins but may have potential regulatory roles in gene expression. CNS in crop genomes could be linked to many important agronomic traits and ecological adaptations. Compared with the relatively mature exon annotation protocols, efficient methods are lacking to predict the location of noncoding sequences in the plant genomes. We implemented a computational pipeline that is tailored to the comparisons of plant genomes, yielding a large number of conserved sequences using rice genome as the reference. In this study, we used 17 published grass genomes, along with five monocot genomes as well as the basal angiosperm genome of Amborella trichopoda . Genome alignments among these genomes suggest that at least 12.05% of the rice genome appears to be evolving under constraints in the Poaceae lineage, with close to half of the evolutionarily constrained sequences located outside protein-coding regions. We found evidence for purifying selection acting on the conserved sequences by analyzing segregating SNPs within the rice population. Furthermore, we found that known functional motifs were significantly enriched within CNS, with many motifs associated with the preferred binding of ubiquitous transcription factors. The conserved elements that we have curated are accessible through our public database and the JBrowse server. In-depth functional annotations and evolutionary dynamics of the identified conserved sequences provide a solid foundation for studying gene regulation, genome evolution, as well as to inform gene isolation for cereal biologists.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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