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  • Royal Society  (24)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: In experimental investigations on axial symmetry, over-ventilated CH 4 /air diffusion combustion in a packed bed is executed to study the height, shape and stability of the flame. The combustor is a quartz tube packed with alumina pellets in which a cylindrical fuel stream is surrounded by a coflow air nozzle. The results show that the bed length and pellet diameter have a significant influence on the flame properties. In general, the flame above the pellet surface has axial symmetry, and its shape and colour are similar to those of a conventional diffusion flame when the bed length is smaller. The colour of the flame front varies with the bed length. The changed colour indicates an increased flame front temperature and that the combustion regime above the bed surface may change from non-premixed combustion to partially premixed combustion or even premixed combustion owing to the mix and dispersion effect in the packed bed. In addition, multiple flame behaviours, such as an inclined flame front, isolated reaction zone and oscillatory motion followed by a pulsating sound with a few hertz in a packed bed, are observed experimentally. The possible reasons for these phenomena are discussed.
    Keywords: energy
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-19
    Description: Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly is the technology used in intermolecular static electricity, hydrogen bonds, covalent bonds and other polymer interactions during film assembling. This technology has been widely studied in the drug carrier field. Given their use in drug delivery systems, the biocompatibility of these potential compounds should be addressed. In this work, the primary biocompatibility of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-(poly-L-orithine/fucoidan) [PLGA-(PLO/fucoidan)] core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. Atomic force microscopy revealed the PLGA-(PLO/Fucoidan) 4 NPs to be spherical, with a uniform size distribution and a smooth surface, and the NPs were stable in physiological saline. The residual amount of methylene chloride was further determined by headspace gas chromatography, in which the organic solvent can be volatilized during preparation. Furthermore, cell viability, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, haemolysis and mouse systemic toxicity were all assessed to show that PLGA-(PLO/fucoidan) 4 NPs were biocompatible with cells and mice. Therefore, these NPs are expected to have potential applications in future drug delivery systems.
    Keywords: biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Types of resins anchored on citric acid were synthesized and identified. The citric acid-modified resins PS-CA, PS-O-CA and PS-N-CA were synthesized by anchoring citric acid on PS-Cl, PS-OH and PS-NH 2 , respectively. The PS-CA, PS-O-CA and PS-N-CA were used to adsorb Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ and Hg 2+ . The influences of pH, adsorption time and metal ion concentration on the adsorption capacities of the resins were investigated. After optimization, PS-CA was a good adsorbent to Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ with q m values of 143.9 mg g –1 , 77.4 mg g –1 , 18.9 mg g –1 and 119.9 mg g –1 , respectively. PS-N-CA was a good adsorbent to Al 3+ and Hg 2+ with q m values of 176.6 mg g –1 and 114.9 mg g –1 , respectively. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm experiments indicated that the pseudo-first-order rate equation was more appropriate for characterizing the kinetic data and the Langmuir model was more suitable for fitting the equilibrium data. The reusability of the citric acid-modified resins was also evaluated and these resins exhibited considerable reusability.
    Keywords: chemical engineering
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes have attracted substantial attention in recent years for their potential applications in photothermal therapy (PTT) as an emerging breakthrough in cancer treatment. Herein, a hybrid nanomaterial of gold nanostars/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was synthesized by two-step reduction via the control of several synthetic conditions such as the reducing agent, pH value, concentration and ratio of reagents. The material shows good biocompatibility and high photothermal conversion efficiency, demonstrating its applicability in PTT. The lack of surfactant in the synthesis process made the hybrid nanomaterial cell-friendly, with no effects on viability in vitro . The MWCNT/gold nanostars hybrid nanomaterial presented 12.4% higher photothermal efficiency than gold nanostars alone and showed a 2.4-fold increase over gold nanospheres based on a heating test under 808 nm laser irradiation. Moreover, the MWCNTs/gold nanostars at low concentration (0.32 nM) exhibited remarkably improved photothermal cancer cell-killing efficacy, which may be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance absorption of the gold nanostars and the combined effects of enhanced coupling between the MWCNTs and gold nanostars. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the MWCNTs/gold nanostars developed herein show prominent photothermal value, and thus may serve as a novel photothermal agent for cancer therapy.
    Keywords: biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Seven new cucurbitane glucosides, hemslepensides J-P ( 1 – 7 ), and two known compounds, 16,25- O -diacetyl-cucurbitane F ( 8 ) and 25- O -acetyl-23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin F ( 9 ), were isolated from the tubers of Hemsleya pengxianensis var. jinfushanensis . The structures of 1 – 7 were elucidated using infrared absorption spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The treatment of HT29 cells, human colon cancer cells, with compounds 8 and 9 inhibited cell proliferation. Further study demonstrated that compounds 8 and 9 induced F-actin aggregation, G 2 /M phase cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in HT29 cells. In summary, the present study enriched the chemical composition research of H. pengxianensis , and suggested that the compounds 8 / 9 treatment may be a potentially useful therapeutic option for colon cancer.
    Keywords: medicinal chemistry, plant science
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: The surface characteristics of fractured specimens are important in hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiments. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3D) scanning device assembled to study these surface characteristics. Cube-shaped rock specimens were produced in the laboratory and subjected to triaxial loading until the specimen split in two in a hydraulic fracturing experiment. Each fractured specimen was placed on a rotating platform and scanned to produce 3D superficial coordinates of the surface of the fractured specimen. The scanned data were processed to produce high-precision digital images of the fractured model, a surface contour map and accurate values of the superficial area and specimen volume. The images produced by processing the 3D scanner data provided detailed information on the morphology of the fractured surface and mechanism of fracture propagation. High-precision 3D mapping of the fractured surfaces is essential for quantitative analysis of fractured specimens. The 3D scanning technology presented here is an important tool for the study of fracture characteristics in hydraulic fracturing experiments.
    Keywords: energy, civil engineering
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This study aimed to investigate effects of thermal treatments on major phenolics and their antioxidant contributions in Acer truncatum leaves and flowers (ATL and ATF, respectively). With ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer, phenolic compositions of ATF were first characterized and compared with those of ATL. An optimized high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint was then established, and 10 major phenolics existing in both ATL and ATF were quantified. Gallic acid derivatives and flavonol-3- O -glycosides were found to be their dominant phenolic constituents, with the former being key constituents which was affected by thermal treatments and further influencing the variations of total phenols. Moreover, the mechanism underlining the changes of phenolics in ATL and ATF by the treatments was characterized as a thermolhydrolysis process. During thermal treatments, polymerized gallotannins were hydrolysed to 1,2,3,4,6-pentakis- O -galloyl-β- d -glucose, ethyl gallate and gallic acid, resulting in more than fivefold and twofold increase of their contents in ATL and ATF, respectively. By contrast, contents and antioxidant contributions of flavonol-3- O -glycosides gradually decreased during the process.\absbreak Overall, this is, to our knowledge, the first report on the effects of thermal treatments on phenolics and their antioxidant contributions in ATL and ATF, and the three gallic acid derivatives with potentially higher bioactivity could be efficiently achieved by thermal treatments.
    Keywords: biochemistry, chemical biology, analytical chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: The present study introduces thermogravimetry with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TG-GC-MS) at four different heating rates to investigate the activation energy and thermal degradation behaviour of walnut shell pyrolysis. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was applied to investigate the activation energy. According to values of the activation energy and the correlation coefficient by the DAEM, the activation energy (98.69–267.75 kJ mol –1 ) and correlation coefficient (0.914–0.999) were determined for pyrolysis of walnut shells. GC-MS was performed to investigate the pyrolysis products from walnut shells at different critical temperature points. More than 20 different substances were identified at different temperatures from GC-MS results. With the increasing pyrolysis temperature, furan, furfural, benzene and long chain alkanes were successively identified in different GC-MS experimental results.
    Keywords: energy
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: Targeting fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) migration and invasion-mediated bone erosion is a promising clinical strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Drug sensitivity testing is fundamental to this scheme. We designed a microfluidic chip-based, cell co-cultured platform to mimic RA FLS-mediated bone erosion and perform drug-sensitive assay. Human synovium SW982 cells were cultured in the central channel and migrated to flow through matrigel-coated side channels towards cell culture chamber where RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic RAW264.7 and osteogenic medium (OS)-stimulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) were cultured in the microfluidic chip device, mimicking FLS migration and invasion-mediated bone erosion in RA. These SW982 cells showed different migration potentials to osteoclasts and BMSC. The migration of SW982 cells with high expression of cadherin-11 was more potent when SW982 cells were connected with the co-culture of RAW264.7 and BMSC. Simultaneously, in the co-cultured chamber, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was enhanced, but alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was decreased in comparison with mono-cultured chamber. Furthermore, it was confirmed that celastrol, a positive drug for the treatment of RA, inhibited SW982 cell migration as well as TRAP activity in the cell-cultured microfluidic chips. Thus, the migration and invasion to bone-related cells was reconstituted on the microfluidic model. It may provide an effective anti-RA drug screen model for targeting FLS migration-mediated bone erosion.
    Keywords: biochemistry, health and disease and epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-14
    Description: To study puff-by-puff release characteristics of crotonaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke under diverse intensive smoking regimens, we designed an RM20H smoking machine with a puff-by-puff smoke collection unit to automatically trap crotonaldehyde in the mainstream cigarette smoke. Using this process, we trapped, puff-by-puff, crotonaldehyde in mainstream smoke generated by different smoking regimens and quantitatively analysed the levels of crotonaldehyde using high-performance liquid chromatography with a modified QuEChERS sample pretreatment method. On the basis of the crotonaldehyde in each puff, we determined crotonaldehyde's puff-by-puff release characteristics. The results showed that crotonaldehyde's puff-by-puff release remained nearly constant for the International Organization for Standardization mode while increased polynomial trend was seen ( n ≥ 6) under the Massachusetts and Health Canada smoking regimens. The equation fit for various regimens was good ( R 2 〉 0.9192). Release characteristics by puff were classified into four categories: (1) first, second and third puffs; (2) fourth and fifth puffs; (3) sixth puff; and (4) seventh and eighth puffs.
    Keywords: analytical chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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