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  • Springer  (616)
  • 2000-2004  (89)
  • 1995-1999  (385)
  • 1980-1984  (142)
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  • 1
    Call number: W26.5:16/40
    Keywords: Medizin / Diagnose ; Tumor / Epidemiologie ; Epidemiologie / EDV ; Epidemiologie / Arbeitsmethodik
    Pages: xi, 450 p.
    ISBN: 3-540-12007-6
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Infant ; Fever ; Bacterial infection ; Logistic regression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Low risk criteria have been defined to identify febrile infants unlikely to have serious bacterial infection (SBI). Using these criteria approximately 40% of all febrile infants can be defined as being at low risk. Of the remaining infants (60%) only 10%–20% have an SBI. No adequate criteria exist to identify these infants. All infants aged 2 weeks-1 year, presenting during a 1-year-period with rectal temperature ≥38.0°C to the Sophia Children's Hospital were included in a prospective study. Infants with a history of prematurity, perinatal complications, known underlying disease, antibiotic treatment or vaccination during the preceding 48 h were excluded. Clinical and laboratory variables at presentation were evaluated by a multivariate logistic regression model using SBI as the dependent variable. By using likelihood ratios a predictive model was derived, providing a post test probability of SBI for every individual patient. Of the 138 infants included in the study, 33 (24%) had SBI. Logistic regression analysis defined C-reactive protein (CRP), duration of fever, a standardized clinical impression score, a history of diarrhoea and focal signs of infection as independent predictors of SBI. Conclusion CRP, duration of fever, the “standardized clinical impression score”, a history of diarrhoea and focal signs of infection were the independent, most powerful predictors of SBI in febrile infants, identified by logistic regression analysis. Although the predictive model is not validated for direct clinical use, it illustrates the clinical potential of the used technique. This technique offers the advantage to assess the probability of SBI in every individual infant. This probability will form the best basis for well-founded decisions in the management of the individual febrile infant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: Caco-2 cells ; in vitro absorption ; in vitro-in vivo ; relationship
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To determine and compare the relationship between in vivo oral absorption in humans and the apparent permeability coefficients (P app ) obtained in vitro on two human intestinal epithelial cell lines, the parental Caco-2 and the TC-7 clone. Methods. Both cell lines were grown for 5−35 days on tissue culture-treated inserts. Cell monolayers were analysed for their morphology by transmission electron micrography, and for their integrity with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance, mannitol and PEG-4000 transport, and cyclosporin efflux. P app were determined for 20 compounds exhibiting large differences in chemical structure, molecular weight, transport mechanisms, and percentage of absorption in humans. Results. The TC-7 clone exhibits morphological characteristics similar to those of the parental Caco-2 cell line, concerning apical brush border, microvilli, tight junctions and polarisation of the cell line. The TC-7 clone however appeared more homogenous in terms of cell size. Both cell lines achieved a similar monolayer integrity towards mannitol and PEG-4000. Monolayer integrity was achieved earlier for the TC-7 clone, mainly due to its shorter doubling time, i.e. 26 versus 30 hours for parental Caco-2 cells. When using cyclosporin A as a P-glycoprotein substrate, active efflux was lower in the TC-7 clone than in the parental Caco-2 cells. The Papp and mechanisms of transport (paracellular or transcellular routes, passive diffusion and active transport) were determined for 20 drugs. A relationship was established between the in vivo oral absorption in humans and Papp values, allowing to determine a threshold value for Pappof 2 10−6 cm/sec, above for which a 100% oral absorption could be expected in humans. Both correlation curves obtained with the two cell types, were almost completely superimposable. These studies also confirmed that the dipeptide transporter is underexpressed in both cell lines. Conclusions. On the basis of morphological parameters, biochemical activity and drug transport characteristics, the TC-7 clone appeared to be a valuable alternative to the use of parental Caco-2 cells for drug absorption studies.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: PARP ; interference with PARP activity ; DNA damage and repair ; DNA recombination ; DNA replication and growth arrest
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the clonogenic survival response to X-rays and MNNG of V79 Chinese hamster cells and two derivative cell lines, ADPRT54 and ADPRT351, deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. Under conditions of exponential growth, both PARP-deficient cell lines are hypersensitive to X-rays and MNNG compared to their parental V79 cells. In contrast, under growth-arrested, confluent conditions, V79 and PARP-deficient cells become similarly sensitive to X-rays and MNNG suggesting that PARP may be involved in the repair of X-ray or MNNG-induced DNA damage in logarithmically growing cells but not in growth-arrested confluent cells. This suggestion, however, creates a dilemma as to how PARP can be involved in DNA repair in only selected growth phases while it is functionally active in all growth phases. To explain these paradoxical results and resolve this dilemma we propose a hypothesis based on the consistent observation that inhibition of PARP results in a significant increase in sister chromatid exchange (SCEs). Thus, we propose that PARP is a guardian of the genome that protects against DNA recombination. We have extended this theme to provide an explanation for our results and the studies done by many others.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Keywords: fucosyltransferase ; N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ; P-selectin ; PSGL-1 ; tricistronic vectors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Expression of recombinant glycoproteins carrying the sialyl-LewisX epitope requires host cells equipped with appropriate glycosyltransferases. Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with tricistronic vectors and encoding the resistance marker gene, neoR, in the third cistron and core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase or α1,3-fucosyltransferase III or IV in either the first or second cistron, respectively, produced both enzyme activities in a constant ratio. A representative clone was transfected with PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotien ligand 1) and conferred P-selectin-binding activity to PSGL-1.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We consider a nonlinear, elliptic, free-boundary problem involving an initially unknown setA that represents, for example, the cross-section of a steady vortex ring or of a confined plasma in equilibrium. The solutions are characterized by a variational principle which allows us to describe their behaviour under a limiting process such that the diameter ofA tends to zero, while the solutions degenerate to the solution of a related linear problem. This limiting solution is the sum of the Green function of the linear operator and of a smooth function satisfying the boundary conditions. Mathematically speaking, this limiting process, that we call “nonlinear desingularization”, is a novel kind of bifurcation phenomenon since the nonlinear effect here involves smoothing the singularity of the associated linear problem.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Split-belt locomotion ; Interlimb coordination ; Adaptation ; Motor learning ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Split-belt locomotion (i.e., walking with unequal leg speeds) requires a rapid adaptation of biome-chanical parameters and therefore of leg muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. This adaptational process during the first strides of asymmetric gait as well as learning effects induced by repetition were studied in 11 healthy volunteers. Subjects were switched from slow (0.5 m/s) symmetric gait to split-belt locomotion with speeds of 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s, respectively. All subjects were observed to adapt in a similar way: (1) during the first trial, adaptation required about 12–15 strides. This was achieved by an increase in stride cycle duration, i.e., an increase in swing duration on the fast side and an increase in support duration on the slow side. (2) Adaptation of leg extensor and flexor EMG activity paralleled the changes of biomechanical parameters. During the first strides, muscle activity was enhanced with no increase in coactivity of antagonistic leg muscles. (3) A motor learning effect was seen when the same paradigm was repeated a few minutes later — interrupted by symmetric locomotion — as adaptation to the split-belt speeds was achieved within 1–3 strides. (4) This short-time learning effect did not occur in the “mirror” condition when the slow and fast sides were inverted. In this case adaptation again required 12–15 strides. A close link between central and proprioceptive mechanisms of interlimb coordination is suggested to underlie the adaptational processes during split-belt conditions. It can be assumed that, as in quadrupedal locomotion of the cat, human bipedal locomotion involves separate locomotor generators to provide the flexibility demanded. The present results suggest that side-specific proprioceptive information regarding the dynamics of the movement is necessary to adjust the centrally generated locomotor activity for both legs to the actual needs for controlled locomotion. Although the required pattern is quickly learned, this learning effect cannot be transferred to the contralateral side.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 47 (1982), S. 172-176 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spinal EMG coordination ; EMG in balancing ; Leg muscle activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary While subjects were standing and balancing on two separate seesaws, the EMG of the leg muscles and the positions of the two seesaws were recorded. The spontaneous balancing movements with predominant oscillations of 4–5 Hz, and the accompanying bursts of EMG activity in the leg muscles occurred quite symmetrically on the two sides. After a displacement, induced either by stimulating the tibial nerves, or by a brisk anterior tilt of one seesaw, the EMG responses of the tibialis anterior muscles started with the same latency (about 50 ms) on both sides, and with similar amplitudes, even when only one side was displaced. It is concluded that this symmetrical leg muscle activation is mediated by a spinal coordinating mechanism the function of which depends on the actual motor task.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Human movement ; Spastic hemiparesis ; Bimanual coordination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A Fitts' task was used to examine whether the large movement asymmetry in subjects with spastic hemiparesis can be reduced or eliminated when both limbs are required to perform functionally equivalent tasks. Furthermore, it was determined whether any such benefit was expressed as mutual accommodation, or whether one hand “slaves” the other. Finally, the effect of increased task constraints on the magnitude of the asymmetry was considered. A group of ten students served as controls. Subjects had to grasp small balls and subsequently place them into holes. As expected, large total response time differences were present between the hands of the hemiparetic subjects in the unimanual conditions. However, 92% of the difference between hands was eliminated in the bimanual conditions. It is argued that the observed temporal invariance, or time locking, between hands in the bimanual conditions might be facilitated through the activity of bilateral controls exerted from each hemisphere and neural crosstalk at different levels of the central nervous system. Still, an asymmetric tendency remained in the bimanual conditions: a tendency existed for the impaired hand to reach the “target” later in time compared with the dominant hand. This tendency was enlarged as the asymmetry in task demands for the two limbs increased.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The incubation of 13-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (13-HPOT) with a hydroperoxide lyase containing extract of mung bean seedlings (Phaseolus radiatus L.) led not only to the formation of 2E-hexenal, but also to the generation of several non-volatile by-products (oxylipins). These oxylipins, generated by the catalysis of other 13-HPOT metabolizing enzymes, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) without time-comsuming derivatization procedures, which would be necessary for their volatilization and stabilization during gaschromatography (GC). Different detection systems such as an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD), diode-array detector (DAD), and particle beam-mass spectrometry (PB-MS) were applied. The utilization of an ELSD represented an improvement of sensitivity compared to a DAD, especially in the case of substances with low UV-activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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