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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 61.20.Ja; 62.20.Dc
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 61.16.Ch; 68.35.Bs; 82.65.My
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: 60 molecules, adsorbed on Si(100)–(2×1) surfaces under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, can be obtained using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. High-resolution images of individual C60 molecules, physisorbed (preannealed) and chemisorbed (postannealed) on different sites on the same sample, reveal clear intramolecular features superimposed on the molecules’ cage structure that are consistent with their bonding nature. Spectroscopic measurements of individual C60 molecules chemisorbed at these sites yield energy levels that exhibit a transition of their electronic structure from that of a near-free adsorbate to that of SiC. The spectroscopic data corresponds to the observed changes in local density of states. These results demonstrate the power of scanning tunneling microscopy to determine the electronic structure and bonding characteristics of individual molecules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 85.42.+m
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 81.15; 68.55; 77.55
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 thin films with single phase and nanosized microstructure were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(111) substrate by metalorganic solution deposition using titanium butoxide and bismuth nitrate at relatively low annealing temperatures. The internal strain in Bi4Ti3O12 thin films was calculated from the peak shifts and broadening of XRD patterns. With increase in annealing temperature, the uniform strain decreased from positive to zero and then to negative, and the non-uniform strain decreased and was negative. The total strain was negative and in the range of -0.2%–-1.0%, from which the stress of the films was calculated to be about -1.4×109 N/m2. The mode values of strain decreased with increase in annealing temperature and increased with increase in film thickness. The dielectric constant increased with increase in annealing temperature and film thickness. The dielectric properties were interpreted by considering the influence of strain, grain size, and grain boundaries. The strain lowered the polarization and increased the dielectric constant. The larger the grain size and the thinner the grain boundary, the greater the dielectric constant. The influence of grain size and grain boundary was stronger than that of the strain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9605
    Keywords: Thin films ; magnetization ; pinning force ; flux creep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Magnetization measurements have been performed onc-axis oriented Y- and Gd-based superconductive films in a wide range of the temperaturesT (4.2–85 K) and magnetic fieldsH (0–8 T) withH∥ c-axis. The influence of flux creep on both the temperature dependence of critical current densityJ cm and the scaling behavior of flux pinning forceF p has been discussed in detail. The experimental results show that Y and Gd films have different pinning mechanism. Flux pinning-force peaks in high fields are observed in Gd film at high temperatures and can be considered as evidence for collective pinning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: density ; dielectric constant ; nitrogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A new equation for determining the density of nonpolar substances based on measurements of dielectric constants is presented. Applying the new equation to nitrogen at a density from 1 to 30 mol·L−1, the mean deviation of the results calculated from the equation is of the order of 10−4, which is the same as the uncertainty of the experimental data. Owing to its analytical form, the derived equation can be applied to indicate the density of nonpolar substances with a densitometer, without adding error to the experimental uncertainty. This equation is also capable of determining the mean polarizabilities and molecular diameters, which agree well with results from other investigators. We suggest that the equation derived here can be applied to some other nonpolar substances as well.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9605
    Keywords: Field distribution ; type II superconductor ; cylindrical shape
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The self-field effects $$\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {B'}$$ of bulk magnetization current are considered when the applied field $$\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {B} _a$$ is parallel to the rotation axis of a cylinder-shaped type-II superconductor with limited axial length L and radius R, and by using finite-element analysis in a self-consistent way, the field-dependent magnetization current density function $$J_m (|B|)[\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {B} (\rho ,z) = \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {B} _a + \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {B'} (\rho ,z)]$$ , the current density, and the field distributions are derived from magnetic moment hysteresis loop m(B a) for the superconductor with full field penetration. When B a≫B p, the average field inside the cylinder $$\left\langle B \right\rangle = \mu _0 [H_a + f_c (L/2R)M]$$ in the Bean model approximation, and the function f c(L/2R) is quantitively given for arbitrary parameter L/2R, where B a=μ0 H a and M=m/(πR 2 L). In addition, the influences of the self-field on the measured m(B a) loop are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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