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  • Springer  (3)
  • 1990-1994  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Benzodiazepine ; Morphine withdrawal ; Flunitrazepam ; Nitrazepam ; Diazepam ; Chlordiazepoxide ; Triazolam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The abuse of benzodiazepines by narcotic addicts has been well documented. However, the pharmacological basis of this abuse is not clear. In this study the effects of different benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam: 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg; nitrazepam: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg; diazepam: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg; chlordiazepoxide: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg; and triazolam: 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) on the morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice have been compared. Drugs were administered 30 min before naloxone-induced withdrawal. All benzodiazepines tested induced similar changes in some of the signs of morphine abstinence: decreased jumping behavior and increased wet dog shake frequency. Jumping behavior was particularly decreased by triazolam and wet dog shakes were mainly increased by flunitrazepam and nitrazepam. Forepaw treading was reduced by flunitrazepam, diazepam and triazolam, increased by nitrazepam and not changed by chlordiazepoxide. Tremor was effectively reduced by diazepam but less reliably by the other benzodiazepines. Teeth chattering was reduced by flunitrazepam and diazepam. These results indicate that benzodiazepines can interfere with the expression of the morphine withdrawal syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Morphine withdrawal ; Periaqueductal gray matter ; Enkephalin catabolism inhibitors ; Kelatorphan ; Thiorphan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have investigated the effects of the local administration into the periaqueductal gray matter of thiorphan, a selective inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.11 “enkephalinase”, kelatorphan, (R)-3-(N-hydroxy-carboxamido-2-benzylpropanoyl)-L-alanine, and RB 38 A, (R)-3-(N-hydroxycarboxamido-2-benzylpropanoyl)-L-phenylalanine, two almost complete inhibitors of enkephalin metabolism, on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats. Local administration of these inhibitors decreased the severity of the withdrawal syndrome. Jumping, chewing, diarrhea, piloerection, salivation and hypothermia were decreased by all drugs. Lacrimation and weight loss were reduced by kelatorphah and RB 38 A whereas teeth chattering, tremor, eye twitch and rhinorrhea were decreased only by RB 38 A. The rise in plasma corticosterone levels was only slightly reduced by the three inhibitors. Wet dog shakes and ptosis remained unchanged. These results indicate that during the morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats there is a tonic or/and naloxone evoked release of opioid peptides, presumably enkephalins, into the periaqueductal gray matter and that inhibition of their degradation strongly decreases the severity of the withdrawal syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The case of a 25-year old man who presented with meningoencephalitis as the sole clinical manifestation of Q fever is described. Serological studies revealed the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies toCoxiella burnetii. The patient responded favourably to a ten-day course of i.v. ceftriaxone and was discharged without any neurological sequelae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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