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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Bronchodilators ; methacholine ; healthy human subjects ; SDZ MKS 492 ; specific airway conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An approximately steady-state reduction of specific airway conductance was induced in healthy human subjects by means of an individualized inhaled methacholine loading dose followed by a maintenance dose regime. Tested against this background bronchoconstriction, the xanthine analogue SDZ MKS 492, when administered as a single oral dose of 40 mg, showed a significant bronchodilator action, which lasted for up to 5.5 h. Bronchodilatation was not seen after administration of 10 or 20 mg doses. SDZ MKS 492 inhaled as a dry powder had a bronchodilator action that was small, most evident with the 12 mg dose and transient. The peak relief of imposed bronchoconstriction was 29% and the apparent half-time of removal of SDZ MKS 492 from its site of action was 5–6 min. Inhaled SDZ 492 had a bitter taste that was not masked by inclusion of menthol and aspartame in the formulation. The bronchodilatation seen in laboratory animals can also be produced by SDZ MKS 492 in man when administered orally or by inhalation. Its magnitude correlates better with the plasma concentration of parent drug than with that of either of the identified metabolites. Dispositional processes in the lung abbreviate its action after administration by inhalation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cell wall ; Ideotype breeding ; Selection ; Smooth bromegrass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A random sample of 80 families of the B8HD smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) population were tested in three environments for forage yield and cell wall constituents. Expected progress from one cycle of family selection was computed for single-trait selection and multiple-trait restricted selection. Expected gains were compared to desired goals and actual results from one cycle of phenotypic selection. Desired goals were: Model I = reduced lignin and cellulose, with increased hemicellulose, resulting in no change in cell wall content; Model II = reduced lignin and cellulose with no change in hemicellulose; or Model III = reduced lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. Single-trait selection for high hemicellulose in first harvest or low cellulose in second harvest had the best expected responses, of any single trait, for Model I. Possible undesirable effects of selection for low cellulose would be a reduction in forage yield potential. Multiple-trait restricted selection was judged to be more effective, with responses all in the desired direction, by specifying increased hemicellulose in index development. Selection in second harvest was expected to have similar responses as first harvest, except for a greater increase in forage yield. Development of Models II or III is expected to be difficult due to a negative correlation estimate between first and second harvest cell wall concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Varvio-Aho et al. (1984) ont fait une analyse incorrecte de leurs données sur des allozymes de huit espèces de guêpes d'Europe du Nord. Une analyse correcte produit cinquante arbres d'une déviation standard d'un pourcent plus basse que leur arbre de Fitch-Margoliash, et trois arbres de Wagner supplémentaires de même longueur que leur réseau. La construction des arbres de consensus indique que leur données ne sont pas très informatives sur les parentés des espèces de vespines. Leur suggestions queDolichovespula ne forme pas un groupe monophylétique n'est pas soutenable.
    Notes: Summary Varvio-Aho et al. (1984) incorrectly analyzed their data on allozymes for eight species of European yellowjackets. Correct analysss produces 50 trees of lower percent standard deviation than their Fitch-Margoliash tree, and three additional Wagner trees of the same length as their network. Construction of consensus trees shows their data to be relatively uninformative on relationships of these vespine species. Their suggestion thatDolichovespula is not monophyletic cannot be upheld.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Polybioides ; Ropalidiini ; Polistinae ; caste differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Queens ofPolybioides tabidus differ from workers of the same species in the presence of very much longer bristles on the eyes and head and in the size of some morphological characters. The presence/absence of eye bristles in queens/workers of P. tabidus is the first qualitative morphological caste difference reported in the Polistinae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Mycorrhiza ; Pisonia ; Root epidermis ; Transfer cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cells of the root epidermis ofPisonia grandis R. Br. at the interface with the mycorrhizal fungus are modified as transfer cells. The length of wall profile in transverse section is increased 1.7-fold by the wall ingrowths, on average, over the outer tangential wall and the outer third of the radial walls; this corresponds to a 1.3—fold increase in wall profile length over the whole cell. These increases in length of wall profile approximate—slightly underestimating-the amplification of surface area of the epidermal cells that results from the ingrowths. The surface area between the symbionts in thePisonia mycorrhiza is less amplified than in classical ectomycorrhizas with a Hartig net: this may be functionally adequate because of the extremely high nutrient status of theP. grandis habitat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Apoplastic permeability ; Cellufluor ; Sheath structure ; Mycorrhiza ; Pisonia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The tracer Cellufluor has been used to test the apoplastic permeability of the fungal sheath inPisonia grandis R. Br. mycorrhizas. In the tip region in the immediate vicinity of the root cap, where the sheath is not yet fully differentiated, Celluflor penetrates as far as the root epidermal cells. Behind this (i.e. just proximal to it) in differentiated regions, where the ultrastructure of both the root and fungal cells indicates that the mycorrhiza is likely to be functionally active, the sheath is impermeable to Cellufluor. During the development and differentiation of the sheath, the interhyphal spaces become filled with extracellular material. In the outer and middle regions this becomes electron opaque after fixation and staining. It is proposed that the dramatic decrease in apoplastic permeability over a short distance back from the root apex as the fungal sheath differentiates results from secretion of extracellular material by the fungus and its modification by deposition of phenolic substances. The symplastic pathway within the fungus may be very important for radial transfer of materials across the sheath. Blockage of the sheath apoplast could provide a sealed apoplastic compartment at the fungus-root interface, with resulting increase in efficiency of transfer between partners. The implications of these observations are discussed in relation to radial transfer across the sheath and transfer between partners in sheathing mycorrhizas in general.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: dystrophic ; seepage ; moors ; carbon ; allochthonous ; autochthonous ; carbon budget
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The results of a preliminary organic budget for a small (1.13 h) dystrophic lake in Maritime Canada are presented. Wood's Pond is moderately autotrophically productive (395 mg C m-2 day-1). Allochthonous inputs overwhelmed autochthonous production by an approximate ratio of 9.7:1. Seepage through the surrounding Sphagnum mosses accounted for 89.9% of all organic carbon entering the lake while fluvial transport was responsible for over 90% of losses. The yearly balance was a net loss of approximately 1820 kg C. The marked dominance of allochthonous inputs over autochthonous production obviously influences the physico-chemical limnology of Wood's Pond but it does not necessarily follow that this system is heterotrophic. The yearly autotrophic production, approximately 1466 kg C, essentially balances an annual community respiration and insect emergence of 1481 kg C. This suggests that, at least in theory, the biological functioning of this dystrophic lake system could be driven almost entirely by autotrophic production.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Dantrolene Sodium ; Skeletal Muscle Relaxant ; Caffeine Contractures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In rat diaphragm-phrenic nerve preparations, dantrolene sodium has been shown to have no effect on neuromuscular transmission. KCl and acetylcholine contractures in the frog rectus muscle are depressed in the presence of dantrolene sodium. The threshold for caffeine contractures in the frog sartorius and rectus muscles is raised from 2.0 to 4.0 mM. In isolated frog sartorius muscles, the tetanic fusion frequency is increased by 29%, and the twitch response is depressed more than the tetanic. According to these observations it is proposed that the muscle relaxant properties of dantrolene sodium are dependent on its direct inhibitory action on skeletal muscle. It is further hypothesized that this direct action results from an antagonism of calcium release within the muscle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-27
    Description: Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease affecting 3 million people in the UK, in which patients exhibit airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD treatment guidelines are largely informed by randomised controlled trial results, but it is unclear if these findings apply to large patient populations not studied in trials. Non-interventional studies could be used to study patient groups excluded from trials, but the use of these studies to estimate treatment effectiveness is in its infancy. In this study, we will use individual trial data to validate non-interventional methods for assessing COPD treatment effectiveness, before applying these methods to the analysis of treatment effectiveness within people excluded from, or under-represented in COPD trials. Methods and analysis Using individual patient data from the landmark COPD Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) trial and validated methods for detecting COPD and exacerbations in routinely collected primary care data, we will assemble a cohort in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (selecting people between 1 January 2004 and 1 January 2017) with similar characteristics to TORCH participants and test whether non-interventional data can generate comparable results to trials, using cohort methodology with propensity score techniques to adjust for potential confounding. We will then use the methodological template we have developed to determine risks and benefits of COPD treatments in people excluded from TORCH. Outcomes are pneumonia, COPD exacerbation, mortality and time to treatment change. Groups to be studied include the elderly (〉80 years), people with substantial comorbidity, people with and without underlying cardiovascular disease and people with mild COPD. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Ethics Committee (Ref: 11997). The study has been approved by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee of the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (protocol no. 17_114R). An application to use the TORCH trial data made to clinicalstudydatarequest.com has been approved. In addition to scientific publications, dissemination methods will be developed based on discussions with patient groups with COPD.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-08-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carpenter, Jennifer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 3;337(6094):510. doi: 10.1126/science.337.6094.510.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22859461" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Bacterial Physiological Phenomena ; *Cell Division ; Choanoflagellata/cytology/*growth & development/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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