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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der Einfluß der thermischen Einlauflänge, die polymere Zersetzung und die Lösungsmittelchemie wurden als wichtige Einflußgrößen bei der Bestimmung des Widerstandes und Wärmeüberganges bei turbulenter Rohrströmung von viskoelastischen Fluiden erkannt. Für Lösungen mit relativ hoher Konzentration wurden die minimalen asymptotischen Wärmeübergangszahlen in der thermischen Einlaufstrecke und der voll ausgebildeten Strömung experimentell ermittelt. Folgende Gleichungen beschreiben den Wärmeübergang: $$\begin{gathered} j_H = 0.13\left( {\frac{x}{d}} \right)^{ - 0.24} \operatorname{Re} _a^{ - 0.45} f\ddot ur das thermische Einlaufgebiet \hfill \\ x/d〈 450 \hfill \\ j_H = 0.03 \operatorname{Re} _a^{ - 0.45} f\ddot ur die ausgebildete Str\ddot omung \hfill \\ x/d〈 450 \hfill \\ \end{gathered} $$ Bei verdünnten Polymerlösungen ist der Wärmeübergang eine Funktion vonx/d, der Re-Zahl und der Polymerkonzentration. Die Reynolds-Analogie zwischen Impuls- und Wärmetransport, die in der Literatur häufig auf Newtonsche Fluide angewendet wird, ist nicht anwendbar bei widerstandsreduzierenden, viskoelastischen Fluiden.
    Notes: Abstract The effects of thermal entrance length, polymer degradation and solvent chemistry were found to be critically important in the determination of the drag and heat transfer behavior of viscoelastic fluids in turbulent pipe flow. The minimum heat transfer asymptotic values in the thermally developing and in the fully developed regions were experimentally determined for relatively high concentration solutions of heat transfer resulting in the following correlations: $$\begin{gathered} j_H = 0.13\left( {\frac{x}{d}} \right)^{ - 0.24} \operatorname{Re} _a^{ - 0.45} thermally developing region \hfill \\ x/d〈 450 \hfill \\ j_H = 0.03 \operatorname{Re} _a^{ - 0.45} thermally developed region \hfill \\ x/d〈 450 \hfill \\ \end{gathered} $$ For dilute polymer solutions the heat transfer is a function ofx/d, the Reynolds number and the polymer concentration. The Reynolds analogy between momentum and heat transfer which has been widely used in the literature for Newtonian fluids is found not to apply in the case of drag-reducing viscoelastic fluids.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Microsatellite ; Simple sequence repeats (SSR) ; Simple sequence length polymorphism(SSLP) ; Linkage map ; Molecular map ; Rice (Oryza sativa)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Ninety-four newly developed microsatellite markers were integrated into existing RFLP framework maps of four rice populations, including two doubled haploid, a recombinant inbred, and an interspecific backcross population. These simple sequence repeats (SSR) were predominantly poly(GA) motifs, targetted because of their abundance in rice. They were isolated from a previously described sheared library and a newly constructed enzyme-digested library. Differences in the average length of poly(GA) tracts were observed for clones isolated from the two libraries. The length of GA motifs averaged 21 repeat units for clones isolated from the Tsp-509-digested library, while motifs averaged 17 units for clones from the sheared library. There was no evidence of clustering of microsatellite markers near centromeres or telomeres. Mapping of the 94 newly developed markers as well as of 27 previously reported microsatellites provided genome-wide coverage of the 12 chromosomes, with an average distance of 1 SSLP (simple sequence repeat polymorphism) per 16–20 cM.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  We here presented evidence that a 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) was associated with hepatitis B viral (HBV) polymerase in the human liver cell HepG2 and this association could be applied even in Escherichia coli. We investigated the role of GRP94 in the expression and stabilization of HBV polymerase in Escherichia coli by coexpression of the two proteins. The affinity column-purified glutathione S-transferase-tagged HBV polymerase (GST-P, 130 kDa) showed a proper molecular size and reverse transcriptase activity on several exogenous templates and was sensitive to specific inhibitors. The GST-P was associated with the maltose-binding protein-tagged GRP94 (MBP-GRP94, 130 kDa) using analyses by an affinity chromatography, native gel electrophoresis and glycerol gradient centrifugation. However, nondenaturing and partially denaturing activity gel analyses showed two active bands of ∼260 kDa and ∼130 kDa, respectively. Furthermore, in the presence of the encapsidation signal RNA template (HBV ɛ RNA), the ∼260-kDa active band was gradually converted to ∼130 kDa, which implies that HBV polymerase was dissociated from the chaperone GRP94 and bound preferentially to the HBV ɛ RNA. These results suggested that the chaperone GRP94 was necessary for the stabilization and production of HBV polymerase as an active form.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Rice ; Semidwarf gene ; Isozyme marker Esterase ; Isoelectric focusing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The linkage relationship between the semidwarf gene (sd-1) and the isozyme locus EstI-2 was elucidated using segregating populations derived from crosses between several semidwarf testers and tall rice varieties. Bimodal distributions for culm length were observed in F2 populations of three cross combinations, including Shiokari/Shiokari (sd-1), Taichung 65 (A,Pn,Pau)/Taichung 65 (sd-1), and Milyang 23/Kasalath. Taking the valley of the distribution curves as the dividing point, two height classes were apparent with a segregation ratio of 3 tall∶1 short, demonstrating this character to be under the control of a single recessive gene. An inheritance study of esterase isozymes, based on isoelectric focusing (IEF), showed that the EstI-2 locus had two active allozymes of monomeric structure and one null form, which were designated “a”, “b”, and “n”, respectively (Eun et al. 1990). Semidwarf testers such as Shiokari (sd-1), Taichung 65 (sd-1) and Milyang 23 have an active allozyme designated as EstI-2aa, while the tall parents, Shiokari and Taichung 65 (A,Pn,Pau), have the active allozyme, EstI-2bb, and Kasalath has a null form of the allozyme, EstI-2nn. By dividing F2 populations based on EstI-2 allozyme patterns, culmlength distributions exhibited trimodal curves. Most of the short plants had the homozygous EstI-2aa pattern of the short parents, most of the tall plants had the homozygous pattern, EstI-2bb or EstI-2nn, and most of the intermediate plants had the heterozygous EstI-2ab or EstI-2an banding pattern. Einkage analysis indicated that sd-1 and EstI-2 were tightly linked. These findings were also confirmed by segregation analyses in F3 progenies. No recombinants among 171 F3 families from the Shiokari/Shiokari (sd-1) combination, five recombinants among 267 F3 families from Taichung 65 (A,Pn,Pau)/Taichung 65(sd-1), and only two recombinants out of 237 F3 families from Milyang 23/Kasalath, were found. The recombination values were 0, 1.87 and 0.8%, respectively.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Rice ; Semidwarf gene (sd-1) ; RFLP ; Molecular marker ; Marker-assisted selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To establish the location of the semidwarf gene, sd-1, the anthocyanin activator (A), purple node (Pn), purple auricle (Pau), and the isozyme locus, EstI-2, in relation to DNA markers on the molecular linkage map of rice, 20 RFLP markers, previously mapped to the central region of chromosome 1 (McCouch et al. 1988), were mapped onto an F2 population derived from the cross Taichung 65 (A,Pn,Pau)/Taichung 65 (sd-1). sd-1 and EstI-2 were determined to be linked most tightly to RFLP markers RG 109 and RG 220, which cosegregated with each other. The distance between these RFLP markers and sd-1 was estimated to be 0.8 cM, based on an observed recombination value of 0.8%. The order of genes and markers in this region of chromosome 1 was determined to be sd-1 — (EstI-2 — RG220 — RG109) — RG381 — A — Pn — Pau. To test the efficacy of selection for sd-1 based on these linked markers, 50-day-old F2 seedlings derived from another cross, Milyang 23/Gihobyeo, were analyzed for marker genotype. At this age, the semidwarf character could not be clearly detected based on phenotype. In addition, plant height was normally distributed in this population, making it difficult to unambiguously identify plants carrying sd-1. Thirteen seedlings homozygous for the sd-1-associated allele at EstI-2, RG220 and RG109, and 13 seedlings homozygous for the Sd-1-associated allele at all three marker loci were selected for further genetic analysis. At 20 days after heading, the culm lengths of these 26 plants were measured and the expected phenotype was confirmed in every case. These 26 plants were then selfed for four generations and F6 lines were again evaluated to determine whether any recombination among the three molecular markers, or between these markers and the sd-1 gene, could be detected. No recombinants were identified, confirming the tight linkage of these loci and the usefulness of genotypic selection for this recessive semidwarf character prior to the time when it can be evaluated based on phenotype.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) ; Simple-sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ; Rice (Oryza sativa L.) ; Molecular map
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A molecular map of rice consisting of 231 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 212 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 86 simple-sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs), five isozyme loci, and two morphological mutant loci [phenol staining of grain (Ph), semi-dwarf habit (sd-1)] has been constructed using an F11 recombinant inbred (RI) population. The mapping population consisted of 164 RI lines and was developed via single-seed descent from an intercross between the genetically divergent parents Milyang 23 (M) (tongil type) and Gihobyeo (G) ( japonica type). A subset of previously mapped RFLP and SSLP markers were used to construct the map framework. The AFLP markers were derived from ten EcoRI(+2) and MseI(+3) primer combinations. All marker types were well distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes. The integrated map covered 1814 cM, with an average interval size of 3.4 cM. The MG map is a cornerstone of the Korean Rice Genome Research Program (KRGRP) and is being continuously refined through the addition of partially sequenced cDNA markers derived from an immature-seed cDNA library developed in Korea, and microsatellite markers developed at Cornell. The population is also being used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and as the basis for marker-assisted variety development.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A process for l-phenylalanine production was studied using a tyrosine auxotrophic regulatory mutant of Escherichia coli, resistant to both β-2-thienyl-dl-alanine and p-fluoro-dl-phenylalanine. Fermentations were carried out in a 30-1 fermentor with intermittent feeding of glucose plus phosphate. The mutant accumulated l-phenylalanine in the fermentation broth up to 15 g/l at pH 7.0 and 33°C. Column chromatography on a strong cation exchanger was employed as the most effective step in the purification of l-phenyl-alanine from the broth. This step brought about 4-fold concentration of the product with 96% recovery.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 81.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A low-order model of rapid thermal processing (RTP) of semiconductor wafers is derived. The first-principles nonlinear model describes the static and dynamic thermal behavior of a wafer with approximate spatial temperature uniformity undergoing rapid heating and cooling in a multilamp RTP chamber. The model is verified experimentally for a range of operating temperatures from 400° C to 900° C and pressures of 1 Torr and 1 atmosphere in an inert N2 environment. Theoretical predictions suggest model validity over a still wider range of operating conditions. One advantage of the low-order model over previous high-order and statistical models is that the proposed model contains a small number of fundamental parameters and functions that, if necessary, are easily identifiable. Furthermore, because of reduced computational complexity, the low-order model can be used in real-time predictive applications including signal processing and process control design. In studying and verifying the model, the dynamic behavior of a semiconductor wafer undergoing rapid temperature changes is characterized. Close comparison between theory and experiment in terms of the wafer eigenvalue and dc gain is demonstrated; the strong nonlinear effects of temperature are shown. Convective heat transfer losses are also examined and are shown to increase with radial position on the wafer.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Nach kurzfristiger extrakorporaler Zirkulation beim Hund wurden Cytochrom-Oxydase-Aktivität und NADH2-Oxydationsrate in den Mitochondrien des Herzmuskels im Vergleich zu Kontrolltieren vermindert gefunden.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Escherichia coli-Endotoxin (1 mg per kg) wurde in die Ohrvene von Kaninchen injiziert: Die Succinat-dehydrogenase- und Cytochromoxydase-Aktivität in den Mitochondrien des Herzmuskels wurde nach 15 min verändert. Es ist wahrscheinlich, dass das Endotoxin sowohl auf das Herz, als auch auf die peripheren Gefässe direkt wirkt.
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