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  • Springer  (182)
  • Annual Reviews  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: LOCALIZATION ; METABOLISM ; brain ; human ; function ; human brain ; EFFLUX
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Invasive mycosis ; ICU patients ; Epidemiology ; Prospective multicenter study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To determine the epidemiological and clinical significance of invasive fungal infections in non-neutropenic patients in intensive care who stay longer than 10 days on the intensive care unit (ICU). Design: Prospective epidemiological multicenter study over a period of 11 months, based on strict clinical, bacteriological, serological and histological criteria. Setting: Six surgical and two medical ICUs units in five university and two municipal hospitals. Patients: 435 non-neutropenic patients from medical and surgical ICUs with an ICU stay of more than 10 days. Measurements and main results: A new occurrence of invasive mycosis (3 sepsis/ 4 peritonitis/ 1 disseminated candidiasis), corresponding to the protocol conditions with onset after day 10 in the ICU, was detectable in 2.0 % (95 % confidence interval 0.85 to 3.8 %) of the 409 patients who could be assessed. Candida species were identified as an infection-relevant pathogen in all cases. The most important risk factor for the development of an invasive mycosis was the onset of peritonitis by the day 11 in the ICU (odds ratio 11.3; p = 0.003). A fungal colonization was detected in 64 % of patients (Candida species 56 %, Aspergillus 4 %, and other fungi). Six of 8 patients with an invasive mycosis died on the ICU; ICU mortality in patients with fungal colonization was 31 % and in noncolonized patients 26 %. Serological tests were not helpful clinically. The sensitivity was 88 % for the Candida HAT (haemagglutination test) (threshold titer 〉 1:160), 100 % for the Candida IFT (immunofluorescence test) (threshold titer 〉 1:80), and 50 % for the Candida Antigen Test (Candtec Ramco, threshold titer ≥ 1:8), and the specificity was 26, 6, and 73 %, respectively. The specificity for the Aspergillus HAT (threshold titer 〉 1:10) was 29 %. Conclusions: Invasive mycoses are rare in non-neutropenic ICU patients, even after a longer stay in the intensive care unit; fungal colonization, on the other hand, is frequently detectable. The mortality of invasive mycosis – even with systemic antimycotic therapy- was high; the mortality in patients with fungal colonization was not significantly increased compared to that in noncolonized patients. The serological test procedures, Candida HAT, Candida IFT, and the Candida Ramco Antigen Test, had a low specificity and were not helpful in diagnosing relevant invasive mycosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Pancrease enzyme drugs ; Enzyme content ; Bioavailability ; Bile acids ; Purines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Of the 72 pancreatic preparations currently on the market 24 were randomly selected for study and compared with 3 US preparations with different dosage forms. The activities of amylase, lipase, and proteases were measured with natural substrates. Prospective bioavailability was determined using amylase as indicator enzyme. Total bile acid content and distribution pattern were analyzed. The risk of renal changes due to prolonged ingestion of purines was estimated by qualitative and quantitative determination of these contaminants. Enzyme activities differed up to 16-fold. At pH 6, the drugs released the indicator enzyme with very different velocities. The efficacy of the drugs varied between 0.78% and 80.9%. The bioavailability of capsules was generally better than that of coated tablets; pellet capsules were not absolutely superior in this regard. All pancreatic preparations contained the purine bases guanine and hypoxanthine; only one drug had no adenine. Fifteen drugs contained 2.2%–10.6% bile acids by weight. Monohydroxy bile acids, which should not be administered to pateints with liver disease, were detected in eight of these preparations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifteen vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants derived from VV strains Praha, LIVP and DD (i.e. Dryvax Wyeth vaccine - derived) and expressing genes for S, preS2-S or c antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were tested in monkey CV-1 cells and human diploid LEP cells. The production of infectious virus was found to be alike in all the recombinants and parental viruses as well. However, several recombinants produced markedly lesser amounts of S and preS2 antigens in LEP cells than in CV-1 cells. This reduction was independent of the parental virus used. There was, however, a relationship between the production of preS2 in CV-1 cells and the production of S and preS2 antigens in LEP cells; in general, recombinants efficiently inducing preS2 antigen formation in CV-1 cells produced markedly reduced amounts of S and preS2 antigens in LEP cells. Reduction of HBV antigen production in LEP cells was not apparent in recombinants expressing only S or c antigens of HBV, and the production of c antigen by double recombinants was not influenced by simultaneous expression of preS2 and S. The various recombinants also differed in the ratio of S:preS2 antigen formation. This difference seemed to be associated with the length of the untranslated leader sequence preceding preS2 but not with the parental virus or cell type used. The titers of antibodies against S and preS2 antigens induced in mice immunized with different recombinants differed markedly. The differences in the ratio of S:preS2 antigen production in vitro were not reflected in vivo by S:preS2 antibody ratio.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé. La pénétration de l’éthanol dans les allogreffes tendineuses humaines a étéétudiée pour établir les conditions nécessaires à l’obtention d’une concentration inactivatrice pour le HIV. La pénétration tendineuse de l’éthanol est assiz lente et ne diffère pas selon les différents types de tendons. Une concentration moyenne de 14% (v/v) a été mesurée après une immersion de 2 heures dans une solution d’éthanol 70% (v/v), tandis qu’une concentration de 19% (v/v) est obtenue après 3 heures. Une immersion d’une durée minimale de 3 heures est donc nécessaire si une inactivation virale du HIV par l’alcool est envisagée.
    Notes: Summary. The penetration rate of ethanol in human tendons was studied to in order to define the conditions which were necessary to achieve an inactivating concentration against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) within the tendon. The rate of alcohol penetration was found to be slow and did not differ with different types of tendons. An average ethanol concentration of 14% (v/v) was measured in human tendons after they had been immersed for 2 h in 70% (v/v) ethanol, and a concentration of 19% (v/v) was reached after 3 h. Ethanol immersion of human tendons may represent an additional safety procedure in inactivating the HIV virus provided the duration is at least 3 h.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions Based on today's extensive experience on acute toxicity testing of chemical substances, and on the outcome of specific studies (Schütz and Fuchs 1982; Müller and Kley 1982; Lorke in preparation; Günzel et al. in preparation), it is now possible to conduct acute toxicity studies with the sacrifice of fewer animals and even to increase at the same time, the quality of the data obtained. Whereas for drugs, data on acute toxicity usually represents only part of the information available, for other chemical substances, acute toxicity may be the only data available, thus asking for more extensive examination of the animals used 'for this kind of study.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 6 (1970), S. 162-167 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Raman Spectroscopy ; Collagen ; Calcification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des spectres Laser de Raman de tibias de boeuf et de tendons de rat reconstitués ont été réalisés et comparés avec le spectre infra-rouge de tissu calcifié, et de collagène. Les raies les plus intenses dans le tissue calcifié sont liées aux systèmes phosphates, symétriques: cependant certains systèmes des corps vertébraux et les chaines secondaires du collagène sont aussi apparents. Il semble que la proline et la phénylalamine du collagène particitpent au spectre. Le spectre Raman du collagène reconstitué est difficile à distinguer du fond fluorescent. Seules 6 bandes distinctes ont pu, etre obtenues elles se répartissent entre les peptides et des chaines secondaires. Les différences êntre le collagène reconstitué et calcifié semblent provenir de la dénaturation partielle du premier dans le faisceau laser. Les autres différences semblent liées à des différences chimiques vraies.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Laser-Ramanspektren von Ochsentibia und von rekonstituierter Rattenschwanzsehne wurden aufgenommen und mit den Infrarotspektren von verkalktem Gewebe und Kollagen verglichen. Die intensivsten Ramanbanden der verkalkten Gewebe wurden von den symmetrischen Phosphatschwingungen verursacht; einige der Schwingungen des Grundgerüstes und der Seitenketten sind jedoch ebenfalls sichtbar. Es weist einiges darauf hin, daß sowohl das Prolin als auch das Phenylalanin des Kollagens zum Spektrum beitragen. Das Ramanspektrum Nur 6 klar abgetrennte Banden, die sich auf Peptide und Seitenkettenschwingungen verteilten, wurden erhalten. Die Unterschiede zwischen den Spektren von redonstituiertem und verkalktem Kollagen können auf eine teilweise Denaturierung des ersteren im Laserstrahl zurückgeführt werden. Andere Unterschiede scheinen rein chemischer Natur zu sein.
    Notes: Abstract Laser Raman spectra of ox tibia and of reconstituted rat tail tendon have been obtained and have been compared with the infrared spectra of calcified tissue and collagen. The most intense Raman bands in the calcified tissue originate from the symmetric phosphate modes; however, several of the backbone and side chain modes of collagen are also apparent. There is some evidence that both proline and phenylalamine in the collagen contribute to the spectrum. The Raman spectrum of reconstituted, collagen was difficult to separate from the fluorescence background. Only six distinct bands could be obtained, divided between peptide and sidechain modes. Differences between reconstituted and calcified collagen spectra may originate from partial denaturation of the former in the laser beam. Other differences seem to be genuine chemical manifestations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 22 (1966), S. 129-136 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird berichtet über eine tödliche suicidale Vergiftung mit dem PrÄparat „Fosfotion“, welches Malathion als wirksamen Stoff enthÄlt. Der Malathionnachweis wurde mittels der Papier- und Dünnschichtchromatographie geführt, eine weitere PrÄparatkomponente (Xylol) wurde mittels der Gaschromatographie nachgewiesen. Nach den Versuchen an MÄusen wurde festgestellt, da\ die ToxicitÄt des „Fosfotion“ PrÄparates höher ist als die ToxicitÄt seiner einzelnen Bestandteile.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Prostate ; Inhibiting factor ; Chalone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of prostate fibroblast conditioned medium on two prostate epithelial cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP) and on two non-prostatic cell lines (MCF-7, K562) was investigated. As prostate fibroblast conditioned medium exerts its main effect on DNA synthesis, 3H thymidine incorporation was monitored to measure factor activity. Conditioned media of all prostatic fibroblast lines investigated were inhibitory for PC-3, LNCaP and MCF-7. Conditioned medium of prostatic fibroblasts was clearly stimulatory for K562. Prostate specificity of production of PEIF was demonstrated by the fact that conditioned medium from skin fibroblasts proved to be stimulatory for PC-3. Inhibitory activity from conditioned medium as well as from a BPH homogenate was precipitated by 33–67% ammonium sulfate. These partly purified fractions were respectively five and ten times as active as “crude” conditioned medium. The physical nature of PEIF (protein or macroglycolipid) as well as the possible function (as a signal messenger between stroma and epithelium) is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Prostatic carcinoma ; Chromosome 8 ; Androgen ; Chromosome aberrations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cytogenetic evolution of the prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP was investigated during long term in vitro culture. Study of five different sublines demonstrated that the original karyotype was well preserved in all sublines, with respect to the chromosome number as well as to the primary markers. All sublines showed additional, subline specific secondary marker chromosomes. Comparison of these markers in androgen responsive and nonresponsive sublines showed rearrangement of the short arm of chromosome 8 in both unresponsive sublines. The breakpoints were in 8p21 and 8p23, respectively, resulting in deletion of the 8p23→pter region in both sublines. In contrast, the hormone responsive sublines did not show any aberrations in chromosome 8. Review of published karyotypes of patients and cell lines seems to support our finding of partial deletion of 8p in adrogen unresponsive prostate tumor cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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