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  • Springer  (255)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (4)
  • Blackwell Futura Publishing, Inc.  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé LeβOHB, la concentration du14CO2 ainsi que l'activité specifique du14CO2 ont été determinées dans l'artère fémorale, le sinus sagittal supérieur et le liquid subarachnoïdal cortical. L'infusion duβOHB enregistré a amené la présence de14CO2 dans le liquide subarachnoïdal cortical. Les résultats indiquent que leβOHB du liquide cérébro spinal peut être oxydé par les tissus à proximité de l'espace subarachnoïdal cortical.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Verabereichung einer letalen Dosis Colchicin verursacht u. a. eine Zunahme der unveresterten Fettsäuren und eine Abnahme des Körpergewichts. Der Gehalt an veresterten Fettsäuren, freiem und verestertem Cholesterin und Plasmaeiweissen bleibt unverändert, ebenso Hämatokrit-und Hämoglobinwerte.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Carbohydrate metabolism ; Lipid metabolism ; Endotoxin ; Glucose ; Lactate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Endotoxin-induced alterations in blood flow, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in various organs of the body are outlined. Peripheral utilization of carbohydrates and lipids does not appear to be adversely affected by the administration of mild to moderate doses of endotoxin (in fact, glucose turnover is even elevated). On the other hand, the supply of free fatty acids from adipose tissue is diminished, at least in part, due to severe hemodynamic changes that occur in this tissue following endotoxin. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is elevated, but does not match the increased demand for glucose by the periphery. The experimental conditions discussed in this brief review elicit changes that are reversible. However, during more severe endotoxemia, the metabolic alterations lead to irreversibility.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are a highly conserved family of proteins consisting of several subtypes, among them the mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI) which is quite homologous to or even identical with the heart-type FABP (H-FABP). The FABPs and MDGI have been suggested to be involved in intracellular fatty acid metabolism and trafficking. Recently, evidence for growth and differentiation regulating properties of MDGI and H-FABP was provided. Using four affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against bovine and human antigen preparations, the cellular localization of MDGI/H-FABP in human and mouse tissues and organs was studied. The antibodies were weakly cross-reactive with adipose tissue extracts known to lack H-FABP, but failed to react by Western blot analysis with liver-type FABP (L-FABP) and intestinal-type FABP (I-FABP). MDGI/H-FABP protein was mainly detected in myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle fibres, lipid and/or steroid synthesising cells (adrenals, Leydig cells, sebaceous glands, lactating mammary gland) and terminally differentiated epithelia of the respiratory, intestinal and urogenital tracts. The results provide evidence that expression of H-FABP is associated with an irreversibly postmitotic and terminally differentiated status of cells. Since all the antisera employed showed spatially identical and qualitatively equal immunostaining, it is suggested that human, bovine and mouse MDGI/H-FABP proteins share highly homologous epitopes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: theophylline ; terbutaline ; asthma ; drug interaction ; hepatic metabolism ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetic mechanism of the theophylline-terbutaline interaction has been studied. Sustained release theophylline 200–400 mg b.d. was given with placebo or terbutaline 2.5 mg t.d.s. to six adult asthmatic patients. Terbutaline decreased the serum trough theophylline levels from 8.1 to 7.3 µg/ml, improved daily the clinical score from 1.51 to 1.26 and increased the peak expiratory flow rate from 316 to 370 l/min. In a single dose study following the chronic therapy, it was shown that there was no change in the peak theophylline concentration or in the timing of the peak, but the t1/2 was reduced from 9.0 to 7.5 h, and the systemic clearance was increased from 20.2 to 24.8 ml·h−1·kg−1. Thus, terbutaline reduced the serum theophylline concentration by increasing its systemic clearance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Single neurons ; Inferior temporal cortex ; Task difficulty ; Vision ; Attention ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To study the influence of task difficulty on the stimulus-elicited responses of inferior temporal (IT) neurons, the stimulus-elicited responses of 64 neurons were recorded from IT cortex of three rhesus monkeys while they performed three behavioral tasks — an irrelevant-stimulus task, a stimulus detection task, and a stimulus discrimination task. The monkey could ignore the stimulus entirely in the irrelevant-stimulus task, was required only to detect stimulus dimming in the stimulus detection task, and was required to attend to specific properties of the stimulus in the discrimination task. The excitatory responses in the discrimination and stimulus detection tasks were larger than those in the irrelevantstimulus task (61% and 33%, respectively, of the individual differences were significant), and excitatory responses in the discrimination task were larger than those in the detection task (49% of the individual differences reached significance). Twenty percent of the stimulus presentations elicited inhibitory responses that were followed by off-responses. The off-responses were modulated by the tasks in the same order as the excitatory on-responses. Assuming that the off-response strengths indicate the depth of the stimulus-induced inhibition, these results suggest that inhibitory responses were influenced across these tasks in a manner similar to the excitatory responses. When the neuronal responses were related to the difficulties of these tasks, both the response strength and errors were seen to be least during the irrelevant-stimulus task and greatest during the discrimination task. This relationship suggests that the visual responsiveness of IT neurons is related to the degree of attention the animal pays to the stimulus. Based on this and findings from several related studies, a more refined hypothesis can be formulated, namely, visual responsiveness of IT neurons is related to the degree of attention the animal pays to stimulus pattern, specifically.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebral ketone oxidation ; β-Hydroxybutyrate ; Ventriculo-Cisternal perfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A ventriculo-cisternal perfusion system (from the 3rd ventricle to cisterna magna) was employed to study the oxidation of Na-DL-3-hydroxybuty-rate-3-14C when added to the perfusion fluid. 14CO2 appeared in the perfusate and in the blood taken from both the confluens sinuum and a peripheral artery, in the course of the perfusion. Specific activity of CO2 in the perfusate usually exceeded that of the venous blood, which in turn was always higher than that of arterial blood. The calculated rate of oxidation of βOHB to CO2 was about 20 mμmole/min, or 5–6% of the perfused βOHB. It is postulated that βOHB supplied locally in CSF may serve some supplemental physiological role as an oxidizable substrate.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Nervenarzt 68 (1997), S. 21-37 
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Neuronale Netzwerke ; Neuroinformatik ; Psychopathologie ; Linguistik ; Entwicklungspsychologie ; Denkstörungen ; Wahn ; Key words Neural network ; Neuroinformation ; Psychopathology ; Thought disorder ; Delusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Within the past 10 years, computer simulations of neural networks have yielded new insights into the nature of information-processing neural systems. Since 1987, more and more network models relevant to psychiatry have been published, and such models have meanwhile been proposed for almost every psychopathological phenomenon. This paper provides an introduction to the theory of neural networks and gives examples of discoveries made via computer simulations. Network models of psychopathological phenomena are discussed with respect to formal thought disorder and delusions. The relevance of neural network models for psychopathological research and theory formulation is highlighted and it is argued that neural network modeling in psychopathology does not merely introduce a few mathematical gimmicks, but rather represents the beginning of a new basis for psychopathology.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Computersimulationen des Verhaltens neuronaler Netzwerke haben im vergangenen Jahrzehnt wesentliche Erkenntnisse zu Systemeigenschaften informationsverarbeitender neuronaler Verbände geliefert. Psychiatrisch relevante Modelle wurden seit 1987 in zunehmendem Maß publiziert und betreffen mittlerweile nahezu das gesamte Spektrum psychopathologischer Sachverhalte. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt zunächst eine Einführung in die Theorie neuronaler Netzwerke, woran sich die Erörterung einiger wichtiger, durch Computersimulationen gewonnener Entdeckungen von Prinzipien neuronaler Informationsverarbeitung anschließt. Netzwerkmodelle psychopathologischer Sachverhalte werden am Beispiel von formalen Denkstörungen und Wahn diskutiert, wonach abschließend auf die Relevanz der Ergebnisse für die allgemeine Psychopathologie insgesamt eingegangen wird. Es wird argumentiert, daß es sich bei psychopathologischen Modellen, die sich auf neuronale Netzwerke berufen, nicht um kurzlebige Erscheinungen handelt, die die bestehende Psychopathologie noch um einige mathematische Kuriositäten bereichern, sondern um den Beginn einer neuen Grundlegung der allgemeinen Psychopathologie.
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