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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ANF-(99–126) ; autonomic nervous system ; nitroprusside ; healting volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary To delineate a possible interaction of atrial natriuretic peptide ANF-(99–126) with autonomic nervous system function in humans, a spectrum of indices were assessed in 10 healthy young men during a 90 min iv administration of a) synthetic ANF-(99–126) 50 μg bolus followed by 0.025 μg·kg−1·min−1, b) the potent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 0.35 μg·kg−1·min−1, or c) vehicle 0.9% NaCl 40 ml and 20% albumin 5 ml, in random sequence. Plasma immunoreactive ANF (irANF) rose from 32 to 1700 pg·ml−1 during the ANF-(99–126) infusion and was stable during SNP or vehicle. Infusion of ANF-(99–126) and SNP, but not vehicle, decreased diastolic blood pressure (BP) on average by −9 and −7.5%, respectively; systolic BP was largely unchanged. Heart rate (HR, +15 and 12%) or plasma norepinephrine (NE) rose similarly during ANF-(99–126) and SNP infusions, and the systolic BP response to orthostasis was similar (−18 mm Hg). The following autonomic indices did not differ significantly after the 3 infusions: responses of HR and NE to orthrostasis; reflex bradycardic response to phenylephrine (PE)-induced rise in systolic BP (+20 mm Hg); responses of BP to hyperventilation, PE, or 3 min of sustained handgrip; and beat-to-beat variation (R-R interval) during deep breathing. The immediate orthostatic HR response (30/15 R-R interval ratio) fell similarly during infusion of ANF-(99–126) or nitroprusside. The findings indicate that in healthy men the function of the autonomic nervous system is not notably impaired by high circulating ANF levels. ANF-(99–126) infused in moderate dosage seems to lower BP largely by non-autonomic mechanisms.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Amlodipine ; Insulin sensitivity ; serum lipids ; insulin secretion ; healthy volunteers ; blood pressure ; adverse events
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin is of pathophysiological, therapeutic and possibly also of prognostic relevance. Calcium channel blockers are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders that are commonly associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (SI). To evaluate the effects of calcium channel blokkade on SI, glucose homoeostasis and lipid profiles, studies were made of SI (determined by the Minimal Model Method of Bergman), basal glucose and insulin levels, serum total triglyceride (Tg) and lipoprotein cholesterol (C) fractions and certain other variables in 38 healthy young men (24 y) during placebo and after 3 weeks of calcium channel blockade with amlodipine 5 mg once daily. Measurements were made after 3 days on a standard diet (2200 kcal · day−1, 45% carbohydrates, 40% fat and 15% proteins) and after an overnight fast. Compared to placebo, amlodipine decreased supine systolic blood pressure (P〈0.01). Heart rate, body weight and 24 h urinary sodium excretion were unaltered, and so were fasting plasma glucose (placebo vs amlodipine: 4.86 vs 4.83 mmol·1−1, respectively) and insulin levels (7.7 vs 7.9 μU·ml−1), SI (10.5 vs 9.6·10−4 × min−1 pro μU·ml−1), serum total Tg, C and lipoprotein C fractions. The findings demonstrate unchanged insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as lipoprotein regulation, during maintenance administration of 5 mg amlodipine daily to healthy young men.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Amantadine ; urinary levels ; elderly patients ; single and multiple doses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The urinary excretion of single or multiple oral doses of amantadine hydrochloride by three elderly patients has been studied by gas chromatography. Steady state amounts in urine were about 230–240 mg per day. The half life of urinary excretion was approximately 34,17 hours. Urine collection from aged subjects is difficult.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Polymyalgia ; Streptococcus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two patients with acute post-streptococcal polymyalgia are described with a review of the seven cases previously reported cases. The common features are sudden onset of muscular pain with fever usually after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. Antistreptolysin O titre and inflammatory indexes are increased and muscle enzymes are normal. Conclusion Acute post-streptococcal polymyalgia should be considered as a possible diagnosis in every child complaining acute polymyalgia.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Insulin ; Atrial natriuretic factor ; natriuresis ; healthy volunteers ; renal function ; sodium metabolism ; water metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Changes in plasma insulin in response to a physiological or pathophysiological elevation in circulating atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) have been investigated. Plasma insulin, glucose, immunoreactive (ir) ANF, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), absolute and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), have been measured in 14 volunteers before and during infusion of low doses of ANF or vehicle (V). Each subject received single-blind in a randomized sequence at 2 week-intervals: V alone, or ANF 4, 8 and 16 ng·kg−1·min−1, indused over 90 min. Plasma irANF was increased 2.5- to 11-fold during the ANF infusion as compared to the test with the vehicle. Plasma insulin did not change during V administration (baseline vs V: 22 vs 21 μU·ml−1) and was unchanged during ANF at 4, 8 and 16 ng·kg−1·min−1 (19, 19, 21 μU·ml−1, respectively). Blood pressure, ERPF and GFR were not affected, and diuresis, FENa and urinary Na excretion were increased significantly and dose-dependently during ANF, but not V infusion. Compared to baseline, ANF 4, 8 and 16 ng·kg−1·min−1 increased urinary Na excretion by 147, 241 and 446 μmol·min−1, respectively. The findings indicate that, in normal humans, an acute increase in irANF within or slightly above the physiological range, which modified natriuresis and diuresis, did not alter circulating plasma insulin.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Amlodipine ; Hypotension ; Insulin sensitivity ; dihydropyridine ; lipoprotein metabolism ; obese hypertensive patients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary To evaluate the effects of long-term treatment antihypertensive with the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine on insulin sensitivity, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein metabolism in obese hypertensive patients. We measured the insulin sensitivity index (SI), determined by the Minimal Model Method of Bergman, fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, serum total triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, and blood pressure in 20 obese, non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension before and after 6 weeks of placebo and again after 6 months of amlodipine. Ten patients [mean body mass index (BMI) 30.2 kg·m−2] had been on prior treatment with a thiazide diuretic in low dosage and/or a β-adrenoceptor blocker (group A), and 10 matched patients [BMI 31.8 kg·m−2] had been previously untreated (group B). Amlodipine was started in a dose of 5 mg and was increased to 10 mg once daily in 14 patients who were hypertensive after 8 weeks on the lower dosage. At entry (before placebo), SI was slightly but not significantly lower in group A than B [2.7 vs. 3.6×10−4 ml·μU−4·min−1]; fasting plasma insulin was 13.6 vs. 12.9 μU·ml−1. After 6 weeks on placebo, SI averaged 3.7 in group A and 4.4×10−4 μU·ml−1·min−1 in group B; fasting plasma insulin was 14.6 vs. 15.1 μU·ml−1, and glucose 5.5 vs. 5.5 mmol·l−1. After 6 months on amlodipine there were no differences in SI [group A vs. group B, 5.2 vs. 3.8×10−4 ml·μU−1·min−1], fasting insulin [13.0 vs. 12.7 μU·ml−1], glucose [5.4 vs. 5.5 mmol·l−1], serum total triglycerides, and cholesterol or lipoprotein cholesterol fractions. Compared with placebo, amlodipine significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heart rate, body weight, and 24 h urinary sodium excretion were unaltered. Long-term treatment with amlodipine does not affect insulin sensitivity, circulating insulin or glucose, or lipoprotein metabolism in obese, non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: flutonidin ; clonidine ; hypertension ; side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a double blind study, planned as a 7×7 latin square, three oral doses of futonidin (0.5, 1, 2 mg), of clonidine (0.0075, 0.150, 0.300 mg) and of a placebo were administered to 7 normal volunteers on 7 different treatment days, with an interval of 3 days. On each treatment day sitting blood pressure, heart rate and reaction time were measured, and sedation and dry mouth evaluated before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after administration. The placebo did not modify the basal value of any variable. Flutonidin and clonidine produced dose-related effects on blood pressure, heart rate, sedation and dry mouth, but did not influence reaction time. Analysis of the dose-response curves demonstrated that the effect of flutonidin was one-fifth to one-twelfth that of clonidine, depending on which variable was considered.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Insulin ; Fosinopril ; insulin sensitivity ; glucose tolerance ; lipoproteins ; ACE inhibition ; normal humans ; blood pressure ; adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of the new ACE-inhibitor, fosinopril, on insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose homoeostasis and lipid profile has been examined in 24 young, healthy, normotensive men. SI, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, serum total triglycerides (Tg) and lipoprotein cholesterol (C) fractions, and ACE activity were assessed after subjects had taken placebo for 1 week and after 3 further weeks either on placebo (12 subjects) or fosinopril 20 mg daily (12 subjects), administered in a doubleblind, randomized order. Measurements were made after 3 days on a standard diet (2500 kcal/d, 45% carbohydrates, 40% fat and 15% proteins) and after an over-night fast. Compared with control values at the end of the runin placebo phase, fosinopril reduced plasma ACE activity (from 106 to 24 nmol·ml−1·min−1), Significantly increased plasma potassium and lowered upright systolic blood pressure. It also improved the k-value of the glucose disappearance rate after glucose load (from −1.70 to −1.88%·min−1) and tended to increase SI slightly although not significantly (from 10.2 to 12.0·10−4·min−1·μU−1·ml−1). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, serum total, high-, low-, and very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol fractions and total triglycerides were unchanged following fosinopril and placebo. The findings indicate that in healthy lean humans, ACE inhibition with fosinopril is neutral with regard to lipoprotein and carbohydrate metabolism, and that it may slightly enhance cellular glucose disposal. This calls for further evaluation in individuals at high risk of developing insulin resistance and in patients with impaired insulin sensitivity related to hypertension, obesity, decreased glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Polymyalgia ; Streptococcus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two patients with acute post-streptococcal polymyalgia are described with a review of the seven cases previously reported cases. The common features are sudden onset of muscular pain with fever usually after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. Antistreptolysin O titre and inflammatory indexes are increased and muscle enzymes are normal Conclusion Acute post-streptococcal polymyalgia should be considered as a possible diagnosis in every child complaining acute polymyalgia.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Childhood headache
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This multicenter study reports the results obtained between 1990 and 1991 by the Study Group for Childhood Headache of the Italian Neuropediatric Society. Standardized computerized case sheets were used in order to increase the number of young patients studied and obtain more homogeneous results. A clinical diagnosis of headache was made in 600 patients (314 female and 286 male) between 4 and 12 years of age, in accordance with the classification set down by the International Headache Society. Clinical symptoms and follow-up were more severe in children with migraine as opposed to headache. No sequence of associated neurological and neurovegetative symptoms was observed at onset of headache, and some (phono-photophobia, pallor, drowsiness, abdominal pains) were much more prevalent than others. Because of the patient's age we studied only the treatment of acute attack and did not take account of chronic treatment. In childhood the clinical course of primary headache tends to improve spontaneously, and we believe that prevention of headache attacks should be carried out only in very rare individual cases.
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