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  • 1
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    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Microbiology ; Medical virology ; Emerging infectious diseases ; Cytology ; Microbial genetics ; Life sciences ; Microbial Genetics and Genomics ; Cell Biology ; Virology ; Medical Microbiology ; Infectious Diseases ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783642036835
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Animal ecology ; Animal Physiology ; Life sciences ; Animal ecology ; Animal Physiology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9783642292057
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  • 3
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Environmental sciences ; Climatic changes ; Soil conservation ; Sustainable development ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environment, general ; Climate Change ; Sustainable development ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Foreword -- 1 Societal Dependence on Soil’s Ecosystem Services -- 2 Soils and Ecosystem Services -- 3 Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration -- 4 Food Security Through Better Soil Carbon Management -- 5 Soil Carbon and Water Security -- 6 Forests, Carbon Pool and Timber Production -- 7 Ecosystem Carbon and Soil Biodiversity -- 8 Ecosystem Services and the Global Carbon Cycle -- 9 Losses of Soil Carbon to the Atmosphere via Inland Surface Waters -- 10 Why Pests and Disease Regulation Should Concern Mankind -- 11 Natural Hazards Mitigation Services of Carbon-Rich Ecosystems -- 12 Safeguarding Regulating and Cultural Ecosystem Services: Degradation and Conservation Status -- 13 Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production, Stocks and Flows of Carbon, and Biodiversity -- 14 Soil Carbon and Biofuels -- 15 Land Degradation and Ecosystem Services -- 16 The Human Dimensions of Environmental Degradation and Ecosystem Services: Understanding and Solving the Commons Dilemma -- 17 Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Formation and Soil Fertility -- 18 Managing Soil Organic Carbon for Advancing Food Security and Strengthening Ecosystem Services in China
    Abstract: This book describes comprehensively potential, co-benefits and drawbacks of carbon (C) sequestration for ecosystem services. Soil generates numerous ecosystem services for human wellbeing and ecological functions. The services discussed include provisional (feed, food, timber, biofuel), regulating (carbon sequestration, pests, diseases), cultural, and supporting (soil formation, nutrient cycling) services. Recarbonization of the biosphere is a potential strategy to redistribute C among global pools, and to enhance ocean but most importantly land-based C sinks with possible feedback on soil-based ecosystem services. Land use and soil management can degrade soil quality, and either reduce quantity and quality of ecosystem services or lead to disservices and create large ecological footprint. Thus, trade-offs between carbon sequestration and ecosystem services must be considered when incentivizing land managers through payments for ecosystem services. Together with sustainable management of land-based C sinks for climate change adaptation and mitigation this will minimize the risks of recarbonization of the biosphere for ecological functions and human wellbeing
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400764552
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  • 4
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Climatic changes ; Soil conservation ; Sustainable development ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Atmospheric Sciences ; Climate Change ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Sustainable development ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I Climate Change in West Asia and North Africa -- 1 Climate Change in West Asia and North Africa (WANA): Overview -- 2 Implications of Climate Change for Agriculture and Food Security in the Western Asia and Northern Africa Region -- Part II Climate Change and Environment -- 3 Climate Change and Soil Quality in the WANA Region -- 4 Conserving Green and Blue Water in the WANA Region -- 5 Climate Change and Land Use in the WANA Region with a Specific Reference to Morocco -- 6 Responses of Insect Pests to Climate Change: Effects and Interactions of Temperature, CO2 on Soil Quality -- 7 Climate Change and Locusts in the WANA Region -- Part III Climate Change and Food Security: Perspectives from WANA sub-Regions -- 8 Climate Change Impact on WANA: Key Researchable Issues and Proposed Measures -- 9 Climate Variability and Change in North African Countries -- 10 Climate Change in Drylands of the Eastern Mediterranean: from Assessment Methods to Adaptation Strategies -- 11 Climate Change and Food Security in the Nile Valley and Red Sea -- 12 Food Security and Climate Change in West Asia -- Part IV Mitigation and Adaptation Options for Different Agroeconomic Sectors in WANA -- 13 Mitigation and Adaptation Options for Rainfed Agriculture in West Asia and North Africa -- 14 Mitigation and Adaptation Options of Climate Change in Irrigated Agriculture in Arab Countries -- 15 Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Options for the Livestock Sector in the West Asia and North Africa -- 16 Afforestation Potential in the WANA Region to Sequester Carbon and Improve Soil Quality -- Part V Policy, Financial, Institutional and Cooperation Issues -- 17 Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into the Development Agenda -- 18 Possible Financial Innovations and Market Mechanisms at the National Level to Cope with Climate Change in WANA Region -- 19 Economic Impacts of Climate Change in the Arab World: A Summary of Case Studies from Syria, Tunisia and Yemen -- 20 Human Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation: Factors that Influence Behaviours -- Part VI Regional Agricultural Adaptation and Mitigation Framework for Climate Change in WANA -- 21 Regional Framework for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the WANA Region -- 22 Adaptation Strategies for Different Sectors in the WANA Region – Summaries of Breakout Group Discussions -- Part VII Conference Declaration -- 23 Kuwait Declaration
    Abstract: The countries of West Asia and North Africa (WANA) have long had the challenge of providing sustainable livelihoods for their populations in the fragile ecosystems of semi-arid and arid areas.℗ Climate change is already a reality in WANA and it places additional constraints on the already fragile ecosystems of dry areas and limited natural resources in WANA.℗ Hence there is an urgency to develop, and strengthen further, research and technology transfer on adaptation, mitigation and production system resilience. A comprehensive and integrated approach to planning and implementing the climate change adaptation strategies across the wide range of agro-ecosystems in different countries in WANA could help both the planners and the local communities to deal effectively with the projected impacts and also contribute to overall sustainability of agricultural production systems.℗ This book addresses the important issue of climate change and food security in West Asia and North Africa and presents perspectives from different sub-regions in WANA.℗ The mitigation and adaptation options for different agroeconomic sectors in WANA as well as policy, financial, institutional and cooperation issues are discussed.℗ These could help in the development of new policies to better adapt agriculture production systems and enhance food security in WANA
    Pages: XI, 423 p. 109 illus., 78 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789400767515
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulated DDT, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos rapidly from yeast glucose medium. The maximum concentrations of DDT, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos accumulated were 8,253, 18,960 and 11,579 μg/g (dry wt), respectively. The pattern of accumulation was similar for all insecticides. The bioconcentration factor was inversely proportional to insecticide solubilities.Saccharomyces metabolized the three insecticides, but only two metabolites of DDT (DDD and DDE) were identified. Protoplast cultures were more sensitive to DDT and fenitrothion compared to normal cultures but were less sensitive to chlorpyrifos. Both the normal and protoplast cultures recovered from the toxic effect after 24 hr.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Baclofen ; ischemia ; gerbils ; cerebral
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the activation of receptor operated calcium channels, may increase the degree of damage in ischemic brain tissue. Inhibition of excitatory neurotransmitters should therefore result in cytoprotection of ischemic brain tissue. In this study we evaluated the effect of baclofen, an inhibitor of presynaptic glutamate release, on ischemic gerbil cortex, hippocampus (CA 1 and CA4), striatum and thalamus. Histological evaluation was done in a blind manner in 4 groups (total 36 animals): a control group (9 animals) and three groups (27 animals) with varying doses of baclofen. For cerebral ischemia, we used single episode of five minutes of arterial occlusion of the carotid arteries. Baclofen in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were given to different groups five minutes prior to ischemic insult. This was followed by intraperitoneal injections given 24 and 48 hours after the initial insult. Statistically significant histological cytoprotection was demonstrated. Doses of 25 mg/kg appeared to demonstrate significant protection of the cortex (p=0.0002), the CA1 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus (p=0.0004 and 0.0001) respectively. At a dose of 50 mg/kg, significant cytoprotection was demonstrated at the hippocampus (CA1 and CA4 regions), in particular at the CA4 region (p=0.0029). The 100 mg/kg dose appeared to have most significant protection at the CA1 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus (both p=0.0001), striatum (p=0.0011), and the thalamus (p=0.0008). All statistical comparisons were done using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test). Our study demonstrates that baclofen is cytoprotective to ischemic neuronal cells, especially in the hippocampus. Clinically this may be beneficial to those patients with strokes or head injuries.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A radioimmunoassay procedure to measure estradiol levels in human serum was developed using125I labeled estradiol and antiestradiol antibody raised in-house using the estradiol-6-CMO-BSA as the immunogen. Controlled process serum was used to maintain the serum matrix and sample-standard identity. The assay was validated by analysing several (n=40) samples and comparing with established commercial assays. The assay had a sensitivity of 35 pg/mL and a range of 50 pg/mL to 5 ng/mL. The interassay C.V. were between 2 to 10% while the intraassay C.V. were between 2 and 8%. This assay is sensitive enough for monitoring ovulation and hypersecretions in ovarian tumours and was primarily developed to be used as an in-house assay in the local hospitals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Hexacyanoferrates (HCFs) are known to be efficient sorbents for the removal of Cs from aqueous solutions. But the powdery precipitate of HCF is unsuitable for use in columns. To make it amenable to column application, it has been coated on polyacrylic fibres by in situ precipitation. In batch and column experiments, the fibres coated with Cupric ferric hexacyanoferrate provided good removal of137Cs from radioactive effluents. Leaching of Cs from the fibres was found to be only 14% in demineralised water medium. The Cs-loaded fibres could easily be incinerated to a smaller volume for further conditioning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Radiolytic depolymerization of hyaluronic acid (HA, a heteropolysaccharide) in aqueous solutions under a variety of conditions demonstrates that the damaging effect of radiolytic radical species is in the following order $$OH \cdot 〉 e_{\bar aq} 〉 O_2^{\bar .} $$ . Cysteine, penicillamine and dithiothreitol have been found to protect against primary radiolytic species. Our results point out that the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the above three thiols do not protect against the radiolytic species generated by the γ-irradiation of aerated sodium formate solutions. The results also indicate that the reaction between $$CO_2^{\bar .} $$ anion and hyaluronic acid is faster than the reaction between $$O_2^{\bar .} $$ and hyaluronic acid and that $$CO_2^{\bar .} $$ anions are not scavenged by superoxide dismutase. The results further suggest that t-butanol radicals interact with hyaluronic acid and reduce the viscosity of HA solutions. Preliminary pulse radiolysis experiments do demonstrate a reaction between $$CO_2^{\bar .} $$ dical and hyaluronic acid.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Изучаиась кинетика эполсидации акриловой кислоты перекисью водорода в присутствии вольфрамата натрия как катализатора. Реакция первого порядка по субстрату и катализатору и нулевого по H2O2. Изучалось также влияние pH на скорость реакции. Предположен механизм, соответстующий найденным закомерностям.
    Notes: Abstract The kinetics of epoxidation of acrylic acid by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sodium tungstate have been studied. The reaction is first order with respect to the substrate and catalyst, but independent of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of reaction is pH dependent. The ionic strangth does not affect the rate of reaction. A rate law has been derived in consonance with the mechanism proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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