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  • Springer  (251)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (15)
  • Annual Reviews  (9)
  • National Academy of Sciences  (6)
  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Psychiatry ; Psychoanalysis ; Neurobiology ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Neurosciences ; Neurobiology ; Psychiatry ; Popular Science in Medicine and Health ; Psychoanalysis ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: 〈p〉This book, written by one of the leaders in the field of the neurosciences, provides an explanation of the symptoms and eventual untimely suicide of one of literatures greatest authors; Virginia Woolf. The sources used are letters and statements from Woolf herself, the literature she wrote and comments, letters and any other documentation that refers to her mental state and her medical status. The author uses current insights into depression, the mental consequences of child abuse and drug interactions/effects to examine her life. 〈/p〉〈p〉The book should appeal to researchers in the neurosciences, psychology and psychiatry as well as to a broader audience, mainly individuals who are interested in the life of this literary genius.〈/p〉〈p〉〈b〉M. R. Bennett AO〈/b〉 is Professor of Neuroscience and University Chair at the University of Sydney, Founding Director of the Brain and Mind Research Institute and Adjunct Professor of Neuropsychiatry. He is the author of many papers and books in neuroscience and neuropsychiatry, including 〈i〉The Idea of Consciousness 〈/i〉(1997) and a 〈i〉History of the Synapse 〈/i〉(2001) as well as more recently 〈i〉Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience〈/i〉 (2003) and 〈i〉History of Cognitive Neuroscience〈/i〉 (2008) with his colleague Peter Hacker. Maxwell Bennett has been President of the International Society for Autonomic Neuroscience, the Australian Neuroscience Society, as well as Chairing Brain and Mind Research Asia/Pacific. He is the recipient of numerous awards for his research in neuroscience, including the Neuroscience Medal, the Ramaciotti Medal and the Macfarlane Burnet Medal.〈/p〉
    ISBN: 9789400757486
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Four cytologically distinct zones defined by the type of vacuoles and vesicles present can be distinguished in young hyphae ofPythium paroecandrum. Acid phosphatase is not associated with the vesicles and the fibrillar vacuoles present in the first and second zones from the hyphal apex but is localized in the vacuoles with electron translucent contents in the third and fourth zones. Microbodies and mitochondria do not contain acid phosphatase. The association of acid phosphatase with vacuoles in fungi of various taxonomic groups is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Microbodies were observed in the hyphal tips of all 14 fungi investigated. Their morphology varied among the fungi and their numbers were influenced by the growth medium. Microbodies were closely associated with mitochondria in one fungus and with the endoplasmic reticulum in several fungi. Catalase was not detected in microbodies with the diaminobenzidine cytochemical procedure even though catalase activity was present in extracts of these fungi. The activities of the glyoxylate-cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase were affected by the growth medium and were particulate in the two fungi studied by differential centrifugation. Microbodies are abundant, and they are ubiquitous among the fungi and in some cases they may contain glyoxylate-cycle enzymes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: valproic acid ; amino acids ; metabolism ; chirality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Valproic acid, an antiepileptic drug, is extensively metabolized in humans. Two putative metabolites, 2-n-propyl-3-aminopentanoic acid (3-aminovalproic acid, 3-amino-VPA; 2a) and 2-n-propyl-4-aminopentanoic acid (4-amino-valproic acid, 4-amino-VPA; 4a), which may result from the transamination of the respective keto acids 1a and 3a may explain the unusual extended seizure protection elicited by valproic acid. The title compounds were synthesized as their diasteriomeric ethyl esters 2b and 4b and submitted for anticonvulsant evaluation by the Antiepileptic Drug Development Program of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke. The results verified our hypothesis, as 4b was active in the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMet) evaluation at 30 mg/kg. Both compounds were highly toxic at 300 mg/kg.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Czecholovakia ; lung cancer ; natural history ; mathematical model ; randomized trial ; screening
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The results from a randomized controlled trial of screening for lung cancer in Czechoslovakia have been used to estimate parameters of the natural history, using a model to simulate the disease process and the effects of screening. The results suggest that the period before clinical presentation during which lesions can be detected by screening is very short (seven to eight months). This implies that to detect three-quaters of all lung cancers by screening, two examinations per year are necessary, and that such a program would advance diagnosis by six months if there were complete participation. The results of the trial itself suggest that the benefit, in terms of a reduction in mortality from lung cancer, is likely to be very small.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Bladder cancer ; case-control study ; Schistosoma haematobium ; squamous cell carcinoma ; Zimbabwe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The incidence of bladder cancer, and the importance of some selected risk factors in its etiology, were estimated from the data collected in the cancer registry of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, during the period 1963–77. Cancer cases were interviewed with a standard questionnaire, and more than 70 percent of these were complete. Incidence rates in the urban population of Bulawayo in the first 10-year period were relatively high, with age standardized rates of 17.9 per 100,000 in men and 9.5 in women. Risk-factor distribution was compared in 680 bladder cancer cases (494 males, 186 females) and a control group comprising other cases with non-tobacco-related cancers (8,201). Seventy-one percent of bladder cancer cases were squamous cell carcinomas. The presence of schistosomiasis, evaluated from past history of bilharzia or hematuria, was associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer in both genders (odds ratio [OR]=3.9 for men, 5.7 for women), a result reflected in the differing risk by province of residence, which correlated with the prevalence of infection among cancer cases. The proportion of bladder cancer attributable to schistosomiasis was estimated to be 28 percent. Social status, as reflected by education level, also influenced risk (ORs for literatecf illiterate males=0.6), but tobacco smoking in men had no effect on the risk of squamous cell tumors. For transitional cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, there was a nonsignificant increased risk of 2.0 in the highest smoking categories (15 g of tobacco per day), compared with non smokers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Upregulation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein by infection with a recombinant p53 adenovirus resulted in extensive apoptosis in ECV-304 cells and the eventual death of almost all the cells. To establish a system to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in p53-mediated apoptosis of these cells, we established a variant of ECV-304 that is resistant to p53-induced apoptosis by repeated infections with a recombinant p53 adenovirus. We have designated this variant as the DECV cell line (Differentiated ECV-304). DECV cells expressed similar amounts of nuclear-localized p53 as ECV-304 cells when infected with recombinant p53 adenovirus, but in contrast to ECV-304 cells, greater than 95% of DECV cells survived and remained viable after 24 hours of infection. In further contrast to ECV-304 cells, DECV cells grew less efficiently in soft agar and exhibited contact inhibition in growth assays. Moreover, DECV cells formed unusual lattice or cyst-like structures in culture and formed lumenal structures indicative of epithelial differentiation in three-dimensional collagen matrices, while parental ECV-304 cells showed minimal evidence of these cellular behaviors. A comparative molecular analysis of gene expression in DECV and ECV-304 cells was conducted by cDNA micro-array technology. Protocadherin-1 was found to be expressed in DECV cells but not in ECV-304 cells, while the Id-3 gene was observed expressed in ECV-304 cells but not in DECV cells. Moreover, upregulated expression of p53 in ECV-304 cells induced the EPHB2 (Ephrin) receptor tyrosine kinase and the ephrin-B1 ligand mRNAs compared to DECV cells treated in the same manner. These data demonstrate that a new variant of the ECV-304 cell line, which is resistant to p53-mediated apoptosis, exhibits differential gene expression as well as distinct cell behaviors as compared to the parental ECV-304 cell line. DECV cells should prove to be a useful tool in future studies to elucidate mechanisms of p53-mediated apoptosis and differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: mammalian artificial chromosome ; microcell fusion ; mouse ; satellite DNA artificial chromosome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A 60-Mb murine chromosome consisting of murine pericentric satellite DNA and two bands of integrated marker and reporter genes has been generated de novo in a rodent/human hybrid cell line (mM2C1). This prototype mammalian artificial chromosome platform carries a normal centromere, and the expression of its β-galactosidase reporter gene has remained stable under selection for over 25 months. The novel chromosome was transferred by a modified microcell fusion method to mouse [L-M(TK−)], bovine (P46) and human (EJ30) cell lines. In all cases, the chromosome remained structurally and functionally intact under selection for periods exceeding 3 months from the time of transfer into the new host. In addition, the chromosome was retained in three first- generation tumours when L-M(TK−) cells containing the chromosome were xenografted in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data support that a murine satellite DNA-based artificial chromosome can be used as a functional mammalian artificial chromosome and can be maintained in vivo and in cells of heterologous species in vitro.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thin-section cytochemistry has been used to demonstrate the formation of glycogen deposits within axons after stretch injury to the optic nerve of adult guinea pigs in a model of focal axonal injury. Glycogen deposits occurred within 17% of structurally normal but, we suggest, damaged fibres within the stretched optic nerve. Adjacent fibres did not stain for glycogen. Small numbers of beta glycogen particles were present 15 min after injury within damaged axons and increasing numbersof particles occurred until 72 h. Degeneration bulbs formed by 72 h, but beta glycogen particles were sparse within these. By 7–14 days after injury there was a marked reduction in the numbers of glycogen particles within axons. Alpha rosettes of glycogen were infrequent within damaged axons. Deposition of glycogen particles within astrocytes after nerve injury was confirmed. Alpha rosettes of glycogen occurred within astrocytes by 6 h and remained until 14 days after injury. Possible mechanisms for the development of glycogen deposits within damaged axons are discussed in relation to a hypothesized influx of Ca2+ at the time of injury into damaged axons. We suggest that glycogen deposition within reactive axons reflects Ca2+ mediated alteration of glycogen synthase activity and compromized axonal transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution and expression of developmentally regulated phosphorylation epitopes on the microtubule-associated protein 1B and on neurofilament proteins recognized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) 150 and mAb SMI-31 was investigated in the developing rat spinal cord. In the embryonic day 11 spinal cord, mAb 150 stained the first axons to appear, whereas mAb SMI-31 staining did not appear until embryonic day 12. At the start of axonogenesis, mAb 150 stained neuronal cell bodies and axons whereas at later times only the distal axon was stained, this is the first demonstrationin vivo of a mAb 150 axonal gradient similar to that seen previouslyin vitro (Mansfield et al., 1991). During the postnatal period, axonal staining by mAb 150 dramatically declined so that by the third postnatal week, only the corticospinal tract, which contains axons that are still growing, was labelled. There was no evidence of dendritic staining except of adult primary motoneurons. In contrast, mAb SMI-31 staining of axons was not present as a gradient. Instead, mAb SMI-31 staining increased progressively throughout this period, persisted into adulthood and was shown by immunoblotting to be related to the increased phosphorylation of the medium and heavy neurofilament proteins. Axonal staining by mAb 150 re-appears in a sub-population of the SMI-31-labelled myelinated axons in the adult spinal cord and PNS and in the perikarya and dendrites of primary motoneurons, where it probably recognizes a phosphorylation epitope on heavy neurofilament proteins. This late appearing epitope has some similarities to that recognized by mAb SMI-31 on neurofilaments, but it is not identical. These cross-reactivities of mAbs that recognize phosphorylation epitopes on otherwise unrelated proteins dictate caution in interpreting immunohistochemical data. It may now be necessary in some cases to re-appraise published studies using these two antibodies.
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