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  • 1
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    Berlin : Springer
    Keywords: Medicine ; Family medicine ; Obstetrics ; Nuclear Medicine ; Internal Medicine ; Endocrinology ; Oncology ; Medicine & Public Health ; General Practice / Family Medicine ; Internal Medicine ; Endocrinology ; Nuclear Medicine ; Oncology ; Obstetrics/Perinatology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783642132629
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: paracetamol ; preoperative administration ; postoperative administration ; analgesic activity ; cross-over study ; oral surgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A double-blind, randomized cross-over trial was carried out in 50 patients undergoing surgical removal of bilaterally impacted lower wisdom teeth. Surgery in each patient was performed twice and paracetamol 1000 mg was administered once preoperatively and once postoperatively. The time interval to additional analgesic intake and the pain intensity up to and at that time were assessed. There was no difference between the 2 treatments. It was concluded that preoperative paracetamol does not offer any clinical advantage in patients who undergo surgical removal of impacted lower wisdom teeth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; Levodopa ; intraduodenal infusion ; PLM-test ; video ratings ; plasma level response ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motor performance of five patients with advanced Parkinson's disease was investigated during their optimum oral therapy (conventional tablets and/or depot capsules) and during a continuous duodenal infusion of levodopa. Due to the low water solubility of the drug, conventional tablets of levodopa + carbidopa (Sinemet®) were milled and dispersed in a 1.8% aqueous methylcellulose solution. The dispersion was delivered nasoduodenally by a portable pump. The effect of levodopa in the two dosing regimens was estimated optico-electronically every 15 min and was also evaluated from videorecordings every 30 min and plasma levels of levodopa was regularly measured. Each dosage regimen the was studied twice, at a 2–4 day interval. Duodenal infusion improved motor function in all five patients and the fluctuations were reduced when compared to the oral therapy. Variation in plasma levodopa concentrations was 3–10 fold during oral therapy, while during the infusion a stable concentration was obtained. The therapeutic concentration varied from 0.3–3 μg ml−1 between patients. The relative bioavailability of levodopa in the solid preparation compared to the dispersion was in all patients 100%. Our results encourage further development of a duodenal infusion system with a levodopa dispersion for clinical use in parkinsonian patients who show severe fluctuation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words     Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome ; Parental imprinting ; IGF2 polymorphisms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is characterised by congenital malformations and organomegaly associated with an increased risk for development of childhood neoplasms. Both a sporadic and a familial form have been described in the literature. It has been suggested that duplications or rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.5) underlie the aetiology of the disease. This region of chromosome 11 contains the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, which has been shown to be parentally imprinted in the sporadic form of the BWS with only the active, paternally-derived allele being duplicated. The familial form of BWS, which exhibits a predominantly maternal inheritance, has been suggested to result from a relaxation of IGF2 imprinting. This could render both parental IGF2 alleles active, thereby generating a similar gene dosage as in the sporadic from of the BWS. To address this issue, we used an RNase protection assay based upon a polymorphic region within exon nine of IGF2. We show here that only the paternally-inherited IGF2 allele is transcriptionally active in the index patient of one family with inherited BWS. In addition, highly informative IGF2 DNA markers were used to perform linkage analysis. Since these data ruled out a common maternally-transmitted IGF2 allele in the affected patients, we argue that IGF2 cannot be linked to the hereditary form to the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome ; Parental imprinting ; IGF2 polymorphisms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is characterised by congenital malformations and organomegaly associated with an increased risk for development of childhood neoplasms. Both a sporadic and a familial form have been described in the literature. It has been suggested that duplications or rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.5) underlie the aetiology of the disease. This region of chromosome 11 contains the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, which has been shown to be parentally imprinted in the sporadic form of the BWS with only the active, paternally-derived allele being duplicated. The familial form of BWS, which exhibits a predominantly maternal inheritance, has been suggested to result from a relaxation of IGF2 imprinting. This could render both parental IGF2 alleles active, thereby generating a similar gene dosage as in the sporadic from of the BWS. To address this issue, we used an RNase protection assay based upon a polymorphic region within exon nine of IGF2. We show here that only the paternally-inherited IGF2 allele is transcriptionally active in the index patient of one family with inherited BWS. In addition, highly informative IGF2 DNA markers were used to perform linkage analysis. Since these data ruled out a common maternally-transmitted IGF2 allele in the affected patients, we argue that IGF2 cannot be linked to the hereditary form to the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Culture on Löwenstein medium shows that lungs, hilar lymph nodes and spleens from female albino rats injected intravenously with BCG, and then killed after observation periods up to 12 months, contain viable BCG. These organisms induced granulomatous tissue reactions in rat lungs, indicating that the resistance of rats to tubercle bacilli is only relative.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome ; IGF-II ; Disomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) a putative disease gene resides at the tip of the short arm of chromosome 11 in the region of the insulin growth like factor II (IGF-II) gene. Whilst changes in gene dosage in this area do not appear to be common in the syndrome, in familial cases the lesion appears to be dominant only when inherited through the female line. We undertook to examine the parental origin of the copies of chromosome 11 in a large group of WBS patients using a series of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) on 11p, and report here that in one sporadic case of WBS out of 14 both copies of chromosome 11 are derived from the father and are present in a normal dosage. This suggests that at least one mode of expression of the lesion is modified by genomic imprinting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome ; Chromosome 11
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is characterised by a specific group of congenital malformations associated with an increased concurrent risk for development of a defined group of childhood neoplasms. The mode of inheritance is complex, but recently compiled family data suggest that it is an autosomal dominant trait of varying expression. It has previously been suggested that major rearrangements on the short arm of chromosome 11 may be involved in the aetiology of the disease, particularly in the region of the insulin like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene (11p15.5). This gene is thought to be parentally imprinted in the mouse and it has been suggested that in the human, duplication of the non-imprinted locus in WBS patient might lead to diploid expression of the gene and consequent general hyperplasia. This model predicts that there should be both frequent and parental origin specific duplication of the IGF-II gene in the patients. It was the aim of this study to examine the IGF-II locus and its surrounding chromosomal environment for such lesions in a large number of WBS patients. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for four linked markers on 11p and genomic clones internal to the IGF-II locus we could find no evidence of alteration or amplification of this area in any of the 11 patients investigated. In one patient who developed a Wilms tumour we could find no evidence for loss of any material on the short arm of chromosome 11 as reported previously. We conclude that amplification of genes on the short arm of chromosome 11 is not a frequent occurrence in WBS and certainly not a prerequisite, leaving open the possibility that mutations in unknown transacting factors might affect the expression of IGF-II in these patients in the absence of lesions in the gene itself.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In-hospital observation with repeated clinical examinations is commonly used in patients with an equivocal diagnosis of appendicitis. It is not known if repeated measurements of temperature and laboratory examinations have any diagnostic importance in this situation. The importance of repeated measurements of the body temperature, white blood cell (WBC) and differential cell counts, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) and of the surgeon's repeated assessments was prospectively analyzed in 420 patients with an equivocal diagnosis of appendicitis at admission who were reexamined after a median of 6 hours of observation. The final diagnosis was appendicitis in 137 patients. After observation the inflammatory response was increasing among patients with appendicitis and decreasing among patients without appendicitis. The variables discriminating power for appendicitis consequently increased, from an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.56 to 0.77 at admission, to 0.75 to 0.85 after observation. The ROC area of the surgeons' clinical assessment increased from 0.69 to 0.89. The WBC and differential cell counts were the best discriminators at the repeat examination. The change in the variables between the observations had weak discriminating power and had no additional importance in addition to the actual level at the repeat examination. To conclude, the diagnostic information of the temperature and laboratory examinations increased after observation. Repeated controls of the body temperature and laboratory examinations are therefore useful in the management of patients with equivocal signs of appendicitis, but the result of the examinations must be integrated with the clinical assessment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 399 (1983), S. 177-189 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Achilles tendon ; Tendon injuries ; Muscles ; Myofibrils ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Unilateral tenotomy of the Achilles tendon was carried out in 60 rabbits. The limb was then either mobilized directly or immobilized for 10 to 35 days using a plaster usually after tendon suture. In certain cases the plaster was removed early (on the 7th or 16th day) and the animals were than allowed to use this leg. Separation between tendon ends was apparent from steel markers, placed close to each cut end of the tendon and examined by X-ray. The separation curve was biphasic and both the first and the inactive phase reflected the degree of tension over the tendon suture. However, during the second separation phase, which began between the 17th and 21st day, the separation gradually reached the same level in all groups. Enzyme histochemistry and electron microscopy revealed severe degenerative changes in immobilized and in shortened muscles. Furthermore, a gradual shift in fibre type characteristics from type 1 slow-twitch fibres towards type 2 fast-twitch fibres occurred. Rapid recovery followed removal of the plaster. The findings indicated that both degenerative and regenerative processes and adaptive processes had been initiated in all experimental muscles when the tendon continuity was broken. The adaptive processes progressed gradually during the five-week post-operative period and might have been responsible for the second phase of the tendon end separation. The fibre adaptation, i.e. the transformation, may be accounted for by changes in structure of the myofibrils and composition of the myosin molecules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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