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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antitumor and antimetastatic activities of a thymic factor, thymostimulin (TP-1), with or without cyclophosphamide (CPA) were examined in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL). Tumor growth was followed by determining the tumor diameter after tumor implantation. TP-1 given to mice every 2 days after tumor implantation significantly inhibited tumor growth without affecting the survival rate. For induction of spontaneous pulmonary metastases, 3LL cells were implanted into the footpads of mice, and the implanted tumor was removed on day 9. The antimetastatic effect of TP-1 on pulmonary metastases after removal of the primary tumor was evaluated by counting the number of pulmonary surface nodules. TP-1 showed antimetastatic activity depending on its time of administration and dose. Combined therapy with TP-1 plus CPA significantly prolonged the survival of mice with pulmonary metastases. The cytolytic activities of spleen cells on 3LL cells were enhanced in mice treated with TP-1 and/or CPA and the cytolytic activity of nonadherent spleen cells, the T-cell population, was enhanced. The role of cytolytic spleen cells in inhibiting and preventing metastases was discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Spleen cells of C57BL/6N mice bearing lung metastases were induced to the cytotoxic state by subcutaneous injection of recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) at a minimum dose of 5×104 U/mouse three times a day for 3 consecutive days. A single intraperitoneal injection of lentinan alone at concentrations of up to 10 mg/kg body weight did not render spleen cells cytotoxic to P-29 cells, but a combination of subthreshold doses of these agents (5×104 U/ml IL-2 and 5 mg/kg lentinan) induced significant in vivo lymphokine-activated killer activity in spleen cells of tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, spleen cells from mice treated i.p. with lentinan became cytotoxic on in vitro treatment with IL-2. The in vitro responsiveness of spleen cells to IL-2 was maximal 3 days after i.p. injection of lentinan. Synergism between IL-2 and lentinan was also observed in mice bearing spontaneous lung micrometastases: neither IL-2 (〈5×104 U/mouse) nor lentinan (〈2.5 mg/kg) alone had a therapeutic effect, but multiple injections of IL-2 with a single injection of lentinan resulted in significant inhibition of spontaneous pulmonary metastases. From these results we conclude that IL-2 and lentinan in combination are more effective than either one alone for inducing destruction of pulmonary metastases.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Radiation therapy ; Bone metastases ; Head and neck cancer ; Pain relief
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy for pain relief of bone metastases from head and neck cancer, a total of 22 patients with head and neck cancer with 30 metastatic bone lesions treated by radiation therapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital were analyzed. These patients were given a dose of 20 to 50 Gy in 10 to 25 fractions using liniac X-ray or electron beam and were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 10 patients with tongue cancer (tongue cancer group), and group B consisted of 12 patients other than with tongue cancer (non-tongue cancer group). In group A, of the 6 metastatic lesions treated with over 30 Gy, 17% achieved CR (complete pain relief for more than 3 months), 33% showed PR (over 50% extent pain relief), and 50% NC. While, in group B, of the 17 lesions 35% showed Cr, 53% PR and 12% NC. There was a significant difference in the response rate (50% vs 88%, P〈0.01) of pain relief between the osseous metastases from tongue cancer group and the non-tongue cancer group, although further prospective studies are necessary to elucidate the radiosensitivity of bone metastases in terms of the histologic difference in head and neck cancer patients.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Microbial protease ; Proenzyme ; Secretion ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The aspartic protease gene of a zygomycete fungus Mucor pusillus was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the yeast GAL7 promoter. A putative preproenzyme with an NH2-terminal extension of 66 amino acids directed by the gene was processed in yeast cells and the mature enzyme, whose NH2-terminus was identical to that of the Mucor enzyme, was efficiently secreted into the medium at a concentration exceeding 150 mg/l. The enzyme secreted from the recombinant yeast was more glycosylated than the native Mucor enzyme but its enzymatic properties were almost identical with those of the native enzyme, which has been used as a milk coagulant in cheese manufacture.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polyimides ; alicyclic diamines ; thermal stability ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The polyaddition reactions of alicyclic diamines such as 1,4-diaminocyclohexane (1,4-CHDA) or 4,4′-diaminodicyclohexylmethane (DCHM) and configurational isomers of 1,4-CHDA or DCHM with tetracarboxylic aromatic anhydrides in aprotic solvents were carried out to prepare high molecular weight poly(amic acid)s. Through the thermal imidization of poly(amic acid)s, several flexible polyimide films were prepared. Because of the stiffness of the alicyclic moieties in diamines, the resulting polyimides exhibit high glass transition temperatures (220-340°C) almost similar to those for corresponding aromatic polyimides which have phenylene groups in place of cyclohexyl groups, and show good thermal stability. The partial crystallization was observed for polyimides with trans-cyclohexyl moiety during the heating in differential scanning calorimetry and ascertained by wide-angle x-ray diffraction. Thus, the inhibition of the occurrence of charge transfer in polyimides is accomplished by introducing alicyclic diamines in place of aromatic diamines without reducing their thermal stability. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polyimides ; alicyclic diamine ; charge transfer photocrosslinking ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photosensitive polyimides with alicyclic diamines and benzophenone moiety were prepared by reactions of 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) with diamines in aprotic solvents, followed by thermal or chemical imidizations. Among them the polyimide from BTDA and bis(4-amino-3-methylcyclohexyl) methane (DMDHM) can be dissolved in several organic solvents such as dichloromethane, tetrachloroethane, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In order to compare properties of the polyimides with alicyclic diamines with those of corresponding aromatic polyimides, the UV absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra of these polyimides and their model compounds were investigated. No occurrence of charge transfer at photoexcited states was ascertained for the polyimides with alicyclic diamines. The hydrogen abstraction and crosslinking during photoirradiation have been studied to learn the influence of the elimination of charge transfer process in these photosensitive polyimides. The quantum yield of hydrogen abstraction for the model compound of alicyclic polyimides is 0.56 in THF measured with HPLC. The quantum yield for the photocrosslinking reaction of the solvent-soluble polyimide with alicyclic diamine, PI(BTDA/DMDHM), was determined to be 0.004 in air from gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement, which is four times higher than that for photosensitive polyimides with aromatic diamines. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(amide acid) ammonium salts ; poly(amide acid)s ; water-soluble polyimide precursors ; UV-vis absorption spectra ; charge transfer ; solubility ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of ammonium salts of poly(amide acid)s (PAS) were prepared from various poly(amide acid)s (PAA) with tertiary amines. The solubility of poly(amide acid) ammonium salts prepared from PAA(PMDA/ODA) in water is related to the ion concentration of tertiary amines. In order to elucidate the influence of the chemical structures of poly(amide acid)s and poly(amide acid) ammonium salts on their absorption spectra, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 3,3′,4,4 ′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and 3,3′,4,4 ′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) were chosen to react with p-phenylenediamine (PDA) and (4,4′-diaminodicyclohexyl)methane (DCHM) to give three kinds of aromatic PAAs and three kinds of alicyclic PAAs. The corresponding PASs were prepared by the reaction of PAAs with triethanolamine (TEA). Their ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra were investigated compared to those of model compounds. A transparent film without absorption above 320 nm was obtained for PAS(PMDA/DCHM). The difference in absorption spectra of PAS(PMDA/PDA) from that of PAS(PMDA/DCHM) can be related to the existence of intra- and intermolecular charge transfer (CT) for PAS(PMDA/PDA). The absorption spectra of PASs with PDA in films are red shifted compared to those of corresponding PAAs in films, while the absorption spectra of PASs in water are blue shifted compared to those of corresponding PAAs in DMF. No differences in the absorption spectra of PAAs and PASs were found in DMF/H2O (9/1) mixed solvent. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1329-1340, 1998
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Bone metastasis markers ; Bone metastasis ; Diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The efficacy and cost/performance benefit of radionuclide bone scintigraphy in monitoring metastatic bone activity remain controversial. Recently developed bone metabolic markers are expected to play an additional role in the diagnosis of bone metastasis. We measured osteoclastic and osteoblastic markers in 267 patients with breast cancer (100 with bone metastasis), 38 patients with prostatic cancer (25 with bone metastasis), 50 patients with lung cancer (12 with bone metastasis) and 33 patients with miscellaneous cancers (13 with bone metastasis) and compared the values in the presence and absence of bone metastasis. Bone metabolic markers, both osteoclastic and osteoblastic, increased significantly in patients with bone metastasis. In breast cancer (bone metastasis is mostly of the mixed type), osteoclastic markers were good in detecting bone metastasis. In prostatic cancer (bone metastasis is mostly osteoblastic), osteoclastic and osteoblastic markers were equally effective in detecting bone metastasis. In lung cancer (bone metastasis is mostly osteolytic), osteoclastic markers were elevated preferentially in bone metastasis. Over all, osteoclastic markers were more sensitive in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, and among osteoclastic markers, serum pyridionoline-cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide was the most efficient in both specificity (91.0%) and sensitivity (48.6%) for detecting bone metastasis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester ; fluorescence depolarization ; groundstate dimer ; excimer ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Photoluminescence behavior (polarization, lifetime) related to liquid-crystal (LC) formation was examined for the thermotropic liquid-crystalline polyesters poly [(ethylene terephthalate)-co-(p-oxybenzoate)] (PET40/OBA60) (OBA content: 60 mol %) and poly [(ethylene 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate)-co-(p-oxybenzoate)] (PEN50/OBA50) (OBA:50 mol %). The Growth of liquid-crystalline (LC) phases of PET40/OBA60 proceeded during annealing. even at low temperature (e.g., 138°C) and were promoted by an increase in annealing temperatures Ta in the experimental temperature range 138-260°C. The concentration dependence of fluorescence spectra of PET40/OBA60 in solution suggested that the fluorescences at 325 and 395 nm can be attributed to monomer and ground-state dimer, respectively. The increase in dimer fluorescence intensity and the decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy ratio r from 0.06 to -0.14 were observed with growth of LC phases. These effects are explained by an increase in the ground-state dimer population and a slight change in the dimer configuration, respectively.PEN50/OBA50 showed monomer fluorescence at 395 nm due to naphthalenedicarboxylate segments and excimer fluorescence at 430 nm. The r value for the excimer fluorescence decreased from zero to about -0.14 with growth of the LC phase. Such an extraordinary phenomena, in comparison with the usual excimer fluorescences which occurs through energy migration, could be interpreted as the result of formation of high-concentration excimer sites induced by chain orientation in LC domains. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: thermotropic liquid-crystalline polyester ; fluorescence ; intermolecular ground-state complex ; electronic distribution ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A thermotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) polyester, poly[(ethylene terephthalate)-co-(p-oxybenzoate)] (PET40/OBA60) (OBA content: 60 mol %), is investigated by fluorescence technique using two model compounds: dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and methyl methoxybenzoate (MMB) and is demonstrated to form an intermolecular ground-state complex between the terephthalate and OBA moieties. The change in fluorescence of PET40/OBA60 film is studied from 25°C to 450°C. The peak wavelength change for fluorescence of the intermolecular ground-state complex from 394 to 430 nm was observed in the temperature range between Tg and the LC transition temperature (115∼ 250°C). This is attributed to the electronic distribution change between terephthalate and OBA moieties in the excited state, which play roles of acceptor and donor, respectively. The increase in the fluorescence intensity from the temperature near the annealing temperature to the temperature near the isotropic temperature (287∼370°C) is suggested to be the increase in LC configuration and the formation of a more stable excited state due to the electronic distribution change between terephthalate and OBA moieties. The lifetime of PET40/OBA60 film quenched from LC temperature (300°C) to room temperature is in agreement with that of the nonannealed one, which is due to the fact that the deactivation process of the sample quenched from LC temperature is in accord with that of the nonannealed one. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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