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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Parkinson’s disease ; Postural set ; Stance ; Background activity ; EMG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Abnormal automatic postural responses are thought to contribute to balance impairment in Parkinson’s disease. However, because postural responses are modifiable by stance, we have speculated that some postural abnormalities in patients with Parkinson’s disease are secondary to their stooped stance. We have studied this assumption by assessing automatic postural responses in 30 healthy subjects who were instructed either to stand upright or to assume a typical parkinsonian posture. During both conditions, subjects received 20 serial 4°’toe-up’ rotational perturbations from a supporting forceplate. We recorded short-latency (SL) and medium-latency (ML) responses from stretched gastrocnemius muscles and long-latency (LL) responses from shortened tibialis anterior muscles. We also assessed changes in the center of foot pressure (CFP) and the center of gravity (COG). The results were qualitatively compared to a previously described group of patients with Parkinson’s disease who, under these circumstances, typically have large ML responses, small LL responses and insufficient voluntary postural corrections, accompanied by a slow rate of backward CFP displacement and an increased posterior COG displacement. The stooped posture resulted in unloading of medial gastrocnemius muscles and loading of tibialis anterior muscles. Onset latencies of stretch responses in gastrocnemius muscles were delayed in stooped subjects, but the onset of LL responses was markedly reduced. Amplitudes of both ML and LL responses were reduced in stooped subjects. Prestimulus COG and, to a lesser extent, CFP were shifted forwards in stooped subjects. Posterior COG displacement and the rate of backward CFP displacement were diminished in stooped subjects. Voluntary postural corrections were unchanged while standing stooped. These results indicate that some postural abnormalities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (most notably the reduced LL responses) can be reproduced in healthy subjects mimicking a stooped parkinsonian posture. Other postural abnormalities (most notably the increased ML responses and insufficient voluntary responses) did not appear in stooped controls and may contribute to balance impairment in Parkinson’s disease.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Kidney ; Solitary cyst ; Transitional cell carcinoma ; Fine-needle aspiration biopsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The differentiation between benign and malignant cystic lesions of the kidney is a diagnostic challenge. Medical imaging aids in this task, but many cystic renal lesions require further work-up, frequently by computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration. We report on the pathological findings in a case of moderately differentiated papillary transitional carcinoma, which arose in a pre-existing pyelocaliceal cyst in a 53-year-old man. In the case of this lesion, the distinction between a benign and a malignant renal cyst is blurred. To our knowledge, this is the third such occurrence to be reported and the first to be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1364-6753
    Keywords: Keywords: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, δ-sarcoglycan, sarcoglycan complex, immunofluorescence, dystrophin-associated, membrane cytoskeleton
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT The dystrophin-based membrane cytoskeleton of muscle fibers has emerged as a critical multiprotein complex which seems to impart structural integrity on the muscle fiber plasma membrane. Deficiency of dystrophin causes the most common types of muscular dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Muscular dystrophy patients showing normal dystrophin protein and gene analysis are generally isolated cases with a presumed autosomal recessive inheritance pattern (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy). Recently, linkage and candidate gene analyses have shown that some cases of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy can be caused by deficiency of other components of the dystrophin membrane cytoskeleton. The most recently identified component, δ-sarcoglycan deficiency occurred in other world populations, to identify the range of mutations and clinical phenotypes, and to test for the biochemical consequences of δ-sarcoglycan gene mutations, we studied Duchenne-like and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients who we had previously shown not to exhibit gene mutations of dystrophin, α-, β-, or γ-sarcoglycan for δ-sarcoglycan mutations (n = 54). We identified two American patients with novel nonsense mutations of δ-sarcoglycan (W30X, R165X). One was apparently homozygous, and we show likely consanguinity through homozygosity for 13 microsatellite loci covering a 38 cM region of chromosome 5. The second was heterozygous. Both were girls who showed clinical symptoms consistent with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in males. Our data shows that δ-sarcoglycan deficiency occurs in other world populations, and that most or all patients show a deficiency of the entire sarcoglycan complex, adding support to the hypothesis that these proteins function as a tetrameric unit.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Cell-mediated immunity ; Lymphocyte proliferation ; HIV-1 ; β-Chemokines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The impairment of lymphocytes to proliferate to HIV antigen is a relatively early functional defect of cell-mediated immunity found in HIV-infected individuals. The finding of strong proliferative responses in nonprogressive HIV disease as well as its inverse association with viral load and clinical manifestation of AIDS supports the further use of this marker as a surrogate of disease progression. The observation that HIV-specific lymphocyte proliferation is associated with the production of CD8-derived HIV suppressive factors such as the β-chemokines further supports this conclusion. These functional immune measurements provide an additional marker to monitor disease progression in HIV-infected individuals, along with the current standards of CD4 counts and viral load.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: dissolution ; tablet stability ; solid state reaction ; croscarmellose sodium ; disintegrant ; infrared spectroscopy ; CP/MAS NMR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To investigate the cause for decrease in delavirdine mesylate 200 mg tablet dissolution upon exposure to high humidity. Methods. Dissolution testing was performed using the USP 2 (paddle) apparatus. Water in tablets was measured by Karl Fischer titration. 13C CP/MAS NMR was used to identify and quantify delavirdine form changes in tablets. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to monitor delavirdine form change in tablets and component mixes, and to investigate a solid state reaction with the disintegrant. Results. Dissolution extent of delavirdine mesylate 200 mg tablets was substantially decreased after exposure to high humidity. This effect is related to the amount of water present in the tablet matrix. 13C CP/ MAS NMR detected about 30% conversion from the mesylate salt of delavirdine to its free base form in the tablet matrix. FT-IR spectroscopy demonstrated that a solid state reaction occurs between the freed methanesulfonic acid and the carboxyl sites on the croscarmellose sodium disintegrant. Conclusions. Water is thought to act as both a reaction medium and a plasticizer for croscarmellose sodium, facilitating protonation of the carboxyl sites on the disintegrant. This reaction has the potential to occur for any acid salt of a free base. The limiting solubility of delavirdine free base formed in the tablets accounts for much of the decrease in the extent of dissolution. A change in inter-particle bonding can explain the reduction in tablet deaggregation during dissolution.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: drug delivery ; diabetes mellitus ; excipient ; insulin ; eye ; nose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The utility of transserosal photoplethysmographic pulse oximetry (PO) to assess intestinal viability intraoperatively was evaluated using an experimental canine model. Comparisons of PO were made with continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound (CWDU) and fluorescein (FL) using histopathologic examination for control. Clinical examination estimates were included for reference. Four 20 cm portions of small bowel from each of four dogs were made ischemic by mesenteric ligation. Thus 320 individual 1 cm bowel segments were studied by means of PO, CWDU, FL, and control histologic grading for ischemia. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences, with PO matching CWDU and FL in intraoperative assessment of small bowel viability. PO, which is readily available in most operating rooms, is a simpler method than CWDU or FL for assessing intestinal viability. This technique is operator independent, easy to interpret and repeat, and is well tolerated. PO is the preferred alternative for objective intraoperative assessment of intestinal viability.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Although DNA typing is an accurate, precise, and robust procedure, quality assurance is enhanced by availability of a suitable reference material. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently released a Standard Reference Material (SRM) that meets the calibration and quality assurance needs of laboratories that perform DNA typing. Each step of the analytical process of DNA typing may be verified by one or more of twenty different components of the SRM. As newer, more sensitive methods for DNA typing have been introduced into the human identification laboratory repertoire, new SRMs will be required for quality assurance. A second SRM for PCR-based tests is under development and soon to be available, is also described.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Annals of software engineering 6 (1998), S. 131-144 
    ISSN: 1573-7489
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Software engineering is entering the educational mainstream at a time when budgets are tight, growth opportunities are limited, and existing disciplines are fighting to retain their share of a shrinking educational pie. This paper discusses some of the fundamental reasons why this situation is not likely to improve, and addresses ways software engineering can utilize modern computing and communication technology to overcome these limitations and, indeed, to lead the way in innovative education.
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