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  • Articles  (2)
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  • 1960-1964  (2)
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  • Articles  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The major purpose of the present experiment was to assess the differential effectiveness of chlordiazepoxide on avoidance response acquisition and extinction. Two groups of rats, one as control and the other treated with chlordiazepoxide were compared on avoidance response acquisition. No significant differences were noted between the two groups, indicating that chlordiazepoxide was not effective in modifying the rate of avoidance response acquisition. The chlordiazepoxide group was then divided into two subgroups, one continued on chlordiazepoxide and the other deprived of chlordiazepoxide for the extinction training. The control group was also divided into two subgroups, one continued as control and the other treated with chlordiazepoxide for the extinction training. These divisions resulted in closely matched subgroups in the number of avoidance response acquisition, making intergroup comparisons of extinction performance possible. This intergroup comparison showed that chlordiazepoxide was effective in modifying the rate and degree of extinction. Less resistance to extinction was shown by the groups specifically treated with chlordiazepoxide during the extinction period, demonstrating that the effectiveness of chlordiazepoxide was confined mainly to the extinction process. These results were evaluated with the view that a conditioned avoidance response is mediated by fear, and an attempt was made to account for the effects of chlordiazepoxide on fear upon which the condition avoidance response is thought to depend.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Helgoland marine research 10 (1964), S. 313-327 
    ISSN: 1438-3888
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary 1. During the exceptionally cold winter of 1962/63 the south east coasts of Great Britain suffered the coldest conditions, but the coasts of Hampshire and Dorset, the Bristol Channel and parts of North Wales the greatest negative anomalies. 2. Northern forms were not generally seriously affected, but some Celtic and southern forms suffered very high mortality in the intertidal zone, particularly in embayed situations in the areas mentioned above. 3. Southern forms limited to exposed western promontories did not suffer much damage; marine algae were also little affected. 4. Death was caused, not only as a direct result of exposure of the tissues to extreme cold, but also from the general lowering of the animals' activity; for example, failure to remove silt by ciliary action, to cling to rock surface, and to burrow, led to many deaths. 5. Even where high mortality was experienced, a few, perhaps more resistant, individuals of the species generally survived in favourable habitats, so that distribution limits were little affected. Adaptive behaviour played an important part in the survival of many littoral forms.
    Notes: Kurzfassung Während des ungewöhnlich kalten Winters 1962/63 herrschten die niedrigsten Temperaturen an der Südostküste Großbritanniens. Die größten negativen Anomalien dagegen wurden an den Küsten von Hampshire und Dorset, im Bristol-Kanal und in Teilen von Nord-Wales festgestellt. Die nördlichen Formen wurden im allgemeinen nicht ernstlich beeinträchtigt, aber einige keltische und südliche Formen erlitten sehr hohe Verluste im Bereich der Gezeitenzone, insbesondere in mehr oder minder abgeschlossenen Buchten im Gebiet der oben erwähnten Lokalitäten. Bei den südlichen Formen der exponierten Küsten der westlichen Vorgebirge war die Sterblichkeit relativ gering; marine Algen wurden ebenfalls nur wenig geschädigt. Der Tod trat nicht nur als direkte Folge der Kälteeinwirkung auf die Gewebe ein, sondern wurde auch durch die zu weit gehende Herabsetzung der Aktivität (etwa unzureichende Zilienaktivität zur Entfernung sedimentierender Schlammpartikel, mangelnde Anhaftungsfähigkeit an die Felsoberfläche oder ungenügendes Eingrabungsvermögen) verursacht. Selbst in Situationen, in denen hohe Sterblichkeitsraten auftraten, überlebten im allgemeinen einige wenige (vielleicht resistentere) Individuen in günstigen Habitaten, so daß die Verbreitungsgrenzen nur geringfügig beeinflußt wurden. Bei vielen Litoralformen spielte zudem ein adaptives Verhalten eine wichtige Rolle für das erfolgreiche Überstehen der Kälteperiode.
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