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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Blood lymphocytes from 100 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-bladder) were studied for their cytotoxicity in vitro against a panel of allogeneic tissue culture cell lines. Of the TCC-bladder patients, 45 were untreated for their disease, while 55 had been treated with local radiotherapy up to 12 years before testing. Control lymphocytes were obtained from (1) 45 untreated, age- and sex-matched patients with other neoplastic diseases, mainly urogenital cancers; (2) 19 patients with acute cystitis; and (3) 45 healthy donors. Lymphocytes from individual donors within all five groups were frequently cytotoxic to any one of the target cells. However, the lymphocytes from each of the two TCC-bladder groups were markedly more cytotoxic to two different bladder tumor targets than to control targets derived from normal bladder epithelium, from colon carcinoma, or from malignant melanoma. Similar comparisons made within each of the three control donor groups did not show this. The results indicate that the two bladder tumor targets were not more susceptible to lymphocyte-mediated lysis than the control targets. The mean cytotoxicity displayed by the lymphocytes from both TCC-bladder groups to the bladder tumor targets was significantly higher than that of the cancer control group and that of the healthy donors. No such elevation was seen when the cancer control group or the cystitis patients were compared with healthy donors. Although untreated TCC-patients with a larger tumor burden (stages T3–T4) appeared to be slightly less cytotoxic to all target cells than those with a smaller tumor burden (T1–T2), these differences were not statistically significant. On the other hand, among the treated TCC-patients, in the main those tested more than 1 year and up to 5 years after therapy exhibited a significantly elevated mean cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets. Within all five donor groups, the overall cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets and the normal bladder targets showed a statistically highly significant correlation. However, while there was no correlation for the untreated TCC-bladder patients and the clinical controls between cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets on one hand and non-bladder targets on the other, the cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets of the treated TCC-bladder patients was also correlated with that to the colon carcinoma and the melanoma targets. The results indicate that cytotoxicity in both TCC patients and controls reflects recognition by the lymphocytes of a variety of antigens, shared to different degrees by different groups of target cells. Furthermore, in TCC-bladder patients there is a superimposed cytotoxicity, which is related to their disease and which probably reflects reactions against one or several tumor-associated antigens.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Bladder carcinoma ; Cell mediated immunity ; Lymphocyte cytotoxicity ; Tumour associated antigens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cytotoxicity in vitro of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-bladder) against allogeneic target cells from established cell lines was studied by the 51Cr-release assay. Lymphocytes from both untreated and treated TCC-bladder patients have a significantly elevated mean cytotoxicity to TCC-bladder target cells. Tumour cell destruction by lymphocytes from TCC-bladder patients shows a clear disease related specificity. In TCC-bladder patients a superimposed cytotoxicity exists, probably reflecting reactions against one or several tumour-associated antigens. In treated patients this cytotoxicity may be masked by higher incidence of cross reaction.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme ; human ; interferon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This report presents the results of a phase I trial of the value of human leucocyte inferon-alpha in the treatment of glioblastoma. Twelve patients entered the trial. In one case we believe that the patient benefitted from the interferon treatment. CT scans of patients on interferon did not reveal the true extent of the tumorous tissue.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Adriamycin ; malignant gliomas ; glioblastoma ; chemotherapy ; tissue concentration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight patients with malignant gliomas verified on CT scan, received an intravenous injection of 50 mg of Adriamycin R, 24 hours prior to surgical removal of the tumour. Peroperatively, both tumour and surrounding tissue specimens were obtained for determination of the tissue concentrations of Adriamycin and its reduced metabolite Adriamycinol. It was found that Adriamycin could be detected in tumour tissue from all patients. The concentration varied between 0,9 and 4,6 nmol/g tissue. In contrast, Adriamycin could only be detected in surrounding brain tissue from one patient. In anin vitro study a human malignant glioma cell line (U-251 MG) was exposed to various concentrations of Adriamycin for 24 hours. It was found that an intracellular drug concentration above 30 nmol/g cells caused a concentration dependent inhibition of cell growth. Thus, it is likely that the poor effect of Adriamycin on patients with malignant gliomas is due to an ineffective drug accumulation in the tumour tissue.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Brain tumours ; lymphocyte markers ; lymphocyte subsets ; immunological system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The blood lymphocyte population of 118 patients with primary intracranial tumours and healthy volunteers was examined with respect to its size and cellular composition using various rosette tests. The patients had not undergone any surgical intervention or received any treatment with ionizing irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. However, some of them were treated with corticosteroids. It was observed that non-steroid treated patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not patients with other histological types of tumours, had a significantly reduced proportion of “active” T-lymphocytes forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (a type of T-lymphocyte which is activated by foetal calf serum). These patients as well as those with astrocytomas, malignant gliomas (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas) or miscellaneous tumours (mainly meningiomas) had normal proportions of lymphocytes with receptors for the Fc-part of IgG or C'3 and cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes under more conventional conditions. Patients who were treated with corticosteroids had an increased frequency of lymphocytes with the above Fc-receptor. An association between site of the lesions and cellular composition of the blood lymphocyte population was not detected. The results give further support for the view that the immunological system may be changed in patients with oligodendrogliomas.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-five patients with advanced colorectal cancer were randomised to one of two schedules of recombinant alpha-2 interferon (IFN). In the first study, 36 patients received single-agent IFN, either 50×106 U/m2 intravenously on 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks, or 20×106 U/m2 subcutaneously three times per week. No tumour responses were seen and toxicity was unacceptable. In the second study, 29 patients received IFN in two similar schedules, but the dose of IFN was reduced to 20×106 U/m2 per day in the intravenous arm and to 5×106 U/m2 per day in the subcutaneous arm. In addition these patients were administered intravenous 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 250–500 mg/m2 per day on the first 5 days of each 4-weekly cycle. Although the toxicity of this second study was tolerable, only one short-lived partial remission was observed. Alpha-2 interferon, alone or in combination with 5-FU, is ineffective in advanced colorectal cancer.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bestatin, ein neuer, chemisch definierter Immunmodulator, wurde auf seine Fähigkeit zur Verstärkung der Phagozytoseaktivität neutrophiler Granulozyten von Patienten mit Furunkulose geprüft. Bei 19 Patienten mit rezidivierender Furunkulose war die Fähigkeit der Granulozyten zur Aufnahme Fluoresceinmarkierter Hefepartikel signifikant verändert (p〈0,01). Zehn Patienten wurden mit 40 mg Bestatin oral behandelt; daraufhin nahm die Phagozytosefunktion ihrer Granulozyten signifikant zu (p〈0,01).
    Notes: Summary Bestatin, a new immunomodulator which is chemically well-defined, was examined for its capacity to enhance the phagocytic activity of neutrophilic granulocytes from patients with furunculosis. The ability of the granulocytes to ingest fluorescein-labelled yeast particles was significantly decreased in 19 patients with recurrent furunculosis (p〈0.01). Oral administration of 40 mg bestatin to ten patients increased the phagocytic function of their granulocytes significantly (p〈0.01).
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