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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus, type SAT1, has been developed by serial passage in tissue cultures of BHK 21 cells and cloning by plaque isolation. Clones of attenuated virus were obtained after 48 passages in culture. Uncloned virus was still pathogenic at the 90th passage but was attenuated by the 150th passage. Tests of the immunising properties of a clone prepared after the 82nd passage of the strain in over 100 cattle and 36 sheep showed that approximately 80% of the cattle given a dose of 108.0MID50 and all of the sheep given 107.5MID50 were protected against challenge. The vaccine strain was not transmitted to in-contact control cattle. Advantages of this method of attenuation are: 1. Early separation of attenuated from pathogenic clones of virus makes possible the rapid development of an attenuated strain vaccine. 2. Screening large numbers of virus clones by inoculation of cattle tongues simplifies the selection of those which have the first necessary attribute of any live vaccine, viz. safety for the species to be immunised. 3. Attenuation of virus in BHK 21 cells results in strains capable of rapid growth to high titres. The same tissue culture systems provides a convenient method for the large scale manufacture of vaccine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A strain of foot-and-mouth disease was modified by passage in BHK21 cells and selection of clones. Development of innocuity for cattle of the passaged virus and of clones was correlated with increased interferon production and decreased cytopathogenicity for calf thyroid tissue culture infected with 104 PFU of virus. Immunogenicity of virus was correlated with the occurrence of viraemia in cattle and to a limited extent with ability to multiply in bovine tongue epithelial cultures. Although avirulent clones were obtained, the immune response of cattle was inadequate to confer protection.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Des analyses multivaritées sur des ouvrières de la fourmi voyageuse de l'ancien monde du genreAenictus, ont permis d'étudier la structure taxonomique ressortant des données morphologiques accumulées. Les résultats ont été comparés aux regroupements subgénériques et spécifiques suggérés par des études taxonomiques antérieures ainsi qu'aux appartenances géogrpahiques connues des espéces étudiées. LesAenictus d'Afrique forment un sous-groupe phénétique distinct comme le font des espèces asiatiques précédemment rangées dans le sous-genreTyphlatta. d'autres expéces espèces asiatiques montrent une affiité soit pour les espèces africaines, soit pour le groupeTyphlatta. Parmi les cinq groupements d'espèces identifiés par une étude taxonomique antérieure, les groupements«currax», «laeviceps» et «wroughtoni» apparaissent clairement comme distincts. L'effet de ces résultats sur la classification sous-générique du genre dépendra d'autres analyses de caractères.
    Notes: Summary Multivariate analyses of workers of the Old World army ant genusAenictus were used to investigte taxonomic structure inherent in the morphological data gathered. Results were compared to subgenric and species groupings suggested in earlier taxonomic studies and to the known geographic ranges of the included species. AfricanAenictus form a distinct phenetic subgroup as do Asian species previously assigned to the subgenusTyphlatta. Other Asian species show an affinit for either the African species or theTyphlatta group. Of the five species groupings identified in an earlier taxonomic work, the“currax”, “laeviceps”, and “wroughtoni” groups are clearly revealed to be phenetically distinctive. How these results will affect the classification of the genus, especially at the subgeneric level, depends on further character analysis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Insulin ; insulin antibody ; immunogenicity ; immune response genes ; haemocyanin ; HLA ; DR7 ; C2 ; C4 ; factor B ; Gm ; C-peptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Seventy-nine patients were observed prospectively during their initial period of treatment with conventional bovine insulins. Insulin antibody levels 6 months after starting insulin therapy did not correlate with age, gender or β cell function at onset of treatment. Patients who required soluble insulin in addition to isophane insulin developed higher levels of insulin antibody. Patients bearing the HLA-B8, DR3 and C4AQO alleles had lower levels of insulin antibody, whereas those bearing DR7 produced significantly higher levels. Other alleles at the C4A, C4B, C2, factor B or Gm loci did not appear to have a significant effect on insulin antibody production. The hyporesponsiveness of B8/DR3/C4AQO-positive individuals probably reflects a non-specific abnormality of immunity whereas the enhanced responsiveness of those positive for DR7 suggests the presence of a specific immune response gene for insulin
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Flagellate/ciliate ; Protists ; Cytoskeleton ; Flagellar apparatus ; Kinetid ; Terminology ; Nomenclature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The terminology used to describe the cytoskeleton of protists is sometimes redundant and confusing. The independent origins of protistology from studies on algae, fungi, and protozoans led to these problems. Additionally, recent studies indicate that seemingly unrelated taxa form new, monophyletic groups. However, homologous structures that support monophyly are difficult to identify when the literature is published in journals restricted to specific fields or when the terminology is in duplicate or triplicate. The purpose of this paper is to establish clear definitions, identify synonyms, and indicate homologies where possible.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International journal of biometeorology 18 (1974), S. 137-141 
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Coastal dunes in Queensland are usually vegetated because climatic conditions favour the growth of dune plants. Occasionally extreme climatic conditions, e.g. gales, droughts, wave erosion, or man's activities, e.g. grazing, access, development, destroy dunal vegetation and onshore winds move sand inland, accelerating coastal erosion. Replacement of vegetation is indicated in severe cases. The paper described trials done on Stradbroke Island into methods of re-establishing vegetation on dunes using different surface mulch treatments, including organic materials (straw and brush), and spray-on emulsions (bitumen, P.V.A. mineral oil-synthetic latex). All treatments (except the oil-latex emulsion) allowed ready establishment of vegetation. The bitumen and P.V.A. treatments could be used to replace the traditional organic mulches, subject to certain conditions. Data is presented on climate, soil temperatures, resistance to wind erosion plant ground covers and densities.
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