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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 49 (1973), S. 13-44 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fungi including yeasts are common in the honey stomachs and provisions of diverse bees. They may be parasites, commensals or mutualistic. Yeasts, singly or in association with bacteria, are pioneer colonizers during a microbial succession in larval cells of many subterranean bees. They are followed by fungi such asAspergillus, Penicillium, Emericellopsis, Sartorya, Pseudoarachniotus, Gymnoascus, Carpenteles andFusarium. Aspergillus flavus andSaccharomyces spp. are pathogenic to many species of bees, and fungi are the main cause of declining alkali bee populations. There are 124 species of fungi, including 36 new records, associated with Apoidea; 49 species are associated with alkali bees.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Microbial biomass ; Dehydrogenase activity ; Phosphatase activity ; Turnover ; Farmyard manure ; Soil enzymes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary We studied the build-up and turnover of microbial biomass following the addition of farmyard manure to an unmanured soil and to soils from a long-term experiment in which different levels of farmyard manure had been applied for the last 23 years. The application of farmyard manure at 15–90 t ha-1 to previously unmanured soil increased the microbial biomass during the first 3 months of incubation but a gradual decline occurred with further incubation for up to 12 months. Microbial biomass C was positively correlated with soil organic C and ranged from 1.8% to 2.2% of organic C after 12 months of farmyard manure applications. Biomass turnover increased with the application of farmyard manure, ranging from 0.81 to 0.87 year-1 with various levels of manure. Amendment of soils from the long-term manure experiment with various levels of farmyard manure led to a build-up and decline in biomass C as seen in the unmanured soils, but biomass C was higher in all treatments compared to the corresponding unmanured soil treatments. Biomass turnover was greater compared to the unmanured soil treatments and it decreased with increasing levels of farmyard manure. The average soil respiratory activity increased with increasing levels of farmyard manure, but respiratory activity per unit of biomass C decreased with increasing levels of manure. Enzyme activities were greater in long-term manured soils compared to unmanured soils amended with various levels of manure. There was a significant correlation between biomass C and enzyme activities.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide ; Hypertension ; SCH 42354 ; blood pressure ; neutral metalloendopeptidase ; pharmacodynamics ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract SCH 42354, a neutral metalloendopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, is the pharmacologically active form of the prodrug SCH 42495. It exerts antihypertensive effects by potentiating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) activity through inhibition of its hydrolysis by NEP. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of SCH 42354 in hypertensive males. SCH 42495 12.5 to 400 mg was administered orally to hypertensive men twice daily in a double-blind, placebo controlled multiple-dose parallel group design. Plasma SCH 42354 concentration and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) data were used to develop a PK-PD model using two approaches. In the first (non-integrated) approach, the “link” model was used to predict effect-site concentrations, and was applied to data obtained at the 300 and 400 mg BID doses only; data at the other (lower) doses were not amenable to modeling because of high variability. Effect-site concentration and DBP data were then fit to a sigmoid Emax PD model. For the 300 mg BID dose, PD parameters were: maximum effect (Emax), 8.1mmHg; no-drug effect (Eo), 3.6 mmHg; concentration corresponding to 50% of maximum response (EC50), 0.87 μg·ml−1; and gamma, 3.9. In the second (time-integrated) approach, plasma SCH 42354 concentration and effect data obtained over the entire dose range were integrated with respect to time. Average plasma concentration and DBP data were then fit to a simple Emax PD model. PD parameters obtained over the dose range were: Emax, 10.3 mmHg; Eo, 2.0 mmHg; and EC50, 0.7 μg·ml−1. These were similar to the estimates obtained from the first approach, demonstrating that the integrated (average) data allow PK-PD modeling over the (entire) dose range. The analysis showed that, at steady-state, a 400 mg BID dose of SCH 42495 produced an approximate 10 mmHg decrease in DBP in hypertensive males; the average plasma SCH 42354 concentration attained at this dose was approximately 1.8 μg·ml−1.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter EKT ; Elektrokrampftherapie ; Betreuungsgesetz ; Key words ECT ; Electroconvulsive therapy ; § 1904 German Civil Code
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary If patients who need electroconvulsive therapy are unable to consent, it is necessary to gain the guardian’s permission to carry out the treatment. It remains unclear if, due to possible side effects, it is necessary to gain an additional approval from the Guardianship Court according to § 1904 of German Civil Code (BGB). The high court of Hamburg (Landgericht Hamburg) decided that legal permission is necessary as a result of the risk of persisting retrograde amnesia and the ensuing danger of permanent damage to the patient’s health. This paper points out however, that electroconvulsive therapy, even considering the contraindications, is a safe and effective treatment for depression and schizophrenic psychoses. Application of unilateral short-pulse stimulation reduces the frequency and intensity of cognitive side effects. In particular, retrograde amnesia is very rare with regard to frequency and intensity and is negligible when compared with the dangers of the illness itself. There- fore, it is not necessary to apply for approval from the Guardianship Court.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Besteht bei einwilligungsunfähigen Patienten die Indikation zur Durchführung einer Elektrokrampftherapie (EKT), ist die Genehmigung des Betreuers zur Durchführung der Heilbehandlung erforderlich. Unklar ist, ob aufgrund von eventuellen Nebenwirkungen zusätzlich eine vormundschaftsgerichtliche Genehmigungspflicht im Sinne des § 1904 BGB anzunehmen ist. Das Landgericht Hamburg war unter Verweis auf das Risiko persistierender retrograder Amnesien von der begründeten Gefahr eines länger dauernden gesundheitlichen Schadens ausgegangen und hatte die Genehmigungspflicht bejaht. Die Elektrokrampftherapie ist jedoch unter Beachtung der Kontraindikationen eine sichere und effektive Therapiemaßnahme zur Behandlung von Depressionen und schizophrenen Psychosen. Die Anwendung der unilateralen Kurzpulsstimulation reduziert die Häufigkeit und Ausprägung der kognitiven Nebenwirkungen. Insbesondere retrograde Amnesien treten nur sehr selten und in einer Ausprägung auf, die angesichts der Gefährdungen durch die Grunderkrankung zu vernachlässigen ist. Eine vormundschaftsgerichtliche Genehmigungspflicht im Rahmen des Betreuungsgesetzes ist nach Meinung der Autoren zu verneinen.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To identify viral genes involved in reactivation of herpes simplex virus from latency, intertypic HSV-1 strain McKrae/HSV-2 strain HG 52 recombinants were selected following cotransfection of intact McKrae DNA and XbaI or Hpal cleaved HG 52 DNA. Eleven separately obtained recombinants containing HG 52 inserts between 0.35–0.56 and/or 0.82–1.0 map units (mu) were isolated. It was noted that with HpaI digested HG 52 DNA, only recombinants containing type 2 inserts from Hpald (0.35–0.57) and/or containing an intact type 2 [S] region were isolated. Similarly with XbaI cleaved HG 52 DNA only recombinants containing type 2 sequences from XbaIc (0–0.45) were isolated. In effect, the type 2 insert always contained one or both origins of replication (ORIL/ORIS). In reciprocal experients isolation of two recombinants from cotransfection of HpaI cleaved McKrae DNA with intact HG 52 DNA confirmed this finding; one contained both copies of ORIS and the intervening short region sequences of McKrae, the other contained approximately 3 kb of McKrae in which ORIL is located. These results indicate that either (a) the presence of an origin of replication in a RE fragment amplifies the fragment thereby increasing its concentration and hence recombination potential with intact genomes; and/or (b) recombination and replication may be correlated. In either case isolation of recombinants containing ORIL and ORIS from the restricted DNA parent strongly suggests that both origins are functional in vitro.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Brassica campestris ; B. juncea ; B. napus ; Diplotaxis siifolia ; Intergeneric hybrid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Attempts were made to obtain intergeneric hybrids between Diplotaxis siifolia, a wild species, and cultivars of Brassica (B. campestris, B. juncea, and B. napus). The crosses showed unilateral incompatibility. When the wild species was used as female parent, pollen germination and pollen tube growth were normal, but hybrid seeds aborted due to post-fertilization barriers. Reciprocal crosses (cultivars as female parent) showed strong pre-fertilization barriers; although pollen grains showed germination, pollen tubes failed to enter the stigma. Hybrids were realized in two of the crosses, D. siifolia x B. juncea and D. siifolia x B. napus, through ovary culture. The hybrids were multiplied in vitro by multiplication of axillary shoots, or somatic embryogenesis. Detailed studies were carried out on the hybrid D. siifolia x B. juncea. F1 hybrids had shrivelled anthers and were pollen sterile. Amphiploids of this hybrid showed 60% pollen fertility and produced seeds upon self-pollination as well as backcross pollination with the pollen of B. juncea.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Estrogen receptors ; Pseudopregnancy ; Urogenital tissue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To elucidate the possible role of progesterone in pregnancy-induced urinary incontinence, the concentration of nuclear estrogen receptors (E2R) was measured in the urogenital tissues of non-pregnant (controls) and on days 6, 12 and 18 of pseudopregnancy in the rabbit. Whereas in the uterus E2R levels decreased by at least five-fold by day 6 of pseudopregnancy, changed little through day 12 and increased again at day 18, in the vagina and urethra only a small and insignificant decrease and increase occurred at days 6–12 and day 18, respectively. The receptor affinity, as judged by the computed K D values, did not change significantly in any of the preparation during pseudopregnancy. Similar changes in the E2R density were observed in rabbits treated with progesterone. These data provide further and concrete evidence for the tissue specificity in the downregulation of E2R by progesterone.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Experiments have been carried out in which the effects of hydroxyurea alone and 5-BUdR alone, as well as in combination, on the development of chicken embryos were studied. The results were as follows: 1. Pilot experiments showed that neither hydroxyurea (0.05 mg/egg) or BUdR (0.025 mg/ egg) alone produced abnormalities during development. 2. When hydroxyurea was administered at 24 hours incubation and 5-BUdR 6 hours later, mortality was high. Mortality decreased as the interval between the two treatments was lengthened to 12 hours and 24 hours. 3. The incidence of beak abnormalities and micromelia rose when hydroxyurea treatment was followed by 5-BUdR by 6 hours or 12 hours. The incidence and severity of the defects declined as the interval was increased to 24 hours. 4. Whether 5-BUdR was injected first followed by hydroxyurea or hydroxyurea was followed by 5-BUdR, when the interval between the initial and the second injection was 6 or 12 hours, the toxic effects and the typical symptoms observed in the embryos were similar. 5. When the time interval between the injection of 5-BUdR followed by hydroxyurea was 24 hours, the mortality as well as incidence of typical abnormalities were reduced considerably. 6. It is supposed that the absence of any remarkable morphological defects when embryos were treated either with hydroxyurea or BUdR alone might be due to a repair mechanism in the DNA of the cells. The pronounced synergistic effects of combination of hydroxyurea and 5-BUdR reported here, could be due to the blockade of thede-novo biosynthesis of DNA.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Hühnerembryonen wurden vier verschiedenen Prozeduren ausgesetzt: Eine erste Gruppe von Embryonen wurde im definitiven Primitivstreifen-Stadium mit 0,5% Urethan behandelt; eine zweite Gruppe erhielt eine Röntgendosis von 300 R im gleichen Stadium; die dritte Gruppe wurde mit Urethan behandelt und nach 6 Std Exposition bestrahlt; die vierte Gruppe erhielt dieselbe Behandlung, aber in umgekehrter Reihenfolge; die fünfte war eine unbehandelte Kontrolle. 2. Urethanbehandlung allein führte zu keinerlei Mißbildungen. 3. Bestrahlung allein führte zu keinerlei Mißbildungen. 4. Sukzessive Verwendung von Bestrahlung und Urethanbehandlung führte zu erheblichen Abnormitäten in Hirn, Herz, Somiten und anderen Organen, und zwar unabhängig davon, welche Behandlungsweise zuerst verwendet wurde. 5. Die Bedeutung dieser Beobachtungen wird diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary 1. Chick embryos were treated in four ways; the first group of embryos was given a single dose of 0.5% urethane alone at the definitive primitive streak stage; the second group was irradiated with 300 R X-ray alone at the same stage; the third group was treated with urethane (0.5%) at the definitive primitive streak stage and following 6 hours incubation was irradiated with 300 R X-ray; the fourth group was irradiated with 300 R x-ray at the definitive primitive streak stage and after 6 hours incubation was treated with 0.5 % urethane. The fifth, untreated group was used as control. 2. After urethane treatment alone, the embryos did not show any abnormalities. 3. X-ray treatment alone also did not cause any malformation in the embryos. 4. After successive administration of two agents irrespective of which was first, significant incidence of gross deformation of various organs including brain, heart, somites, etc. was observed. 5. The significance of these observations is discussed.
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