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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Mechano-receptors ; Palate ; Merkel cell ; Ruffini corpuscle ; Free nerve ending ; Lamellated corpuscle ; Meissner corpuscle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The sensory innervation of the hard palate of the rhesus monkey was studied by light and electron microscopy. The mucosa of the hard palate is subject to a particularly heavy mechanical load requiring functional specialisation of the horny epithelium in the form of thickenings – the papilla incisiva and eight pairs of rugae palatinae. A thin layer of firm connective tissue (lamina propria) attaches the mucosa to the periost of the hard palate. Sensory nerve fibres were found most abundantly in the papilla incisiva and first rugae palatinae. Their number decreases in an aboral direction. Five types of sensory nerve endings were found. Free nerve endings were ubiquitous in the epithelium and lamina propria. Merkel nerve endings were found in the basal layer of the epithelium of the papilla incisiva and rugae palatinae. Meissner corpuscles were located in the connective tissue between epithelial pegs, while lamellated corpuscles were seen below the epithelial pegs. Ruffini corpuscles were found in the deeper layer of the lamina propria. Thus, a variety of sensory nerve endings were found in the hard palate, especially in those areas that are in close contact with the tongue during chewing of food. This rich innervation suggests an important role in monitoring the mechanical properties of food and the position of the tongue.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 38 (1926), S. 35-47 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die im Dochtkohlenbogen gefundene Zweiteilung wird photographisch, spektroskopisch und durch Sondenmessungen näher untersucht. Die Abweichungen des Dochtkohlenbogens von den gewöhnlichen Bogengesetzen wird auf die Überlagerung zweier Grenzbogen zurückgeführt, welche getrennt gemessen werden und hyperbolische Charakteristiken haben. Es wird eine theoretische Behandlung durchgeführt, woraus folgt: 1. Die steigeade Charakteristik rührt von einem Übergang einer Bogenart in eine andere her. 2. Im Gebiete höherer Temperatur (stärkerer Anregung bzw. Ionisation) ist der Gassäulenwiderstand größer. 3. Die Anregungsspannung des Si ist kleiner als 7 Volt.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 56 (1984), S. 315-325 
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ice single crystals are superheated by a pressure jump. Their optical homogeneity is examined by elastic light scattering in order to obtain information about the thermodynamic state in the bulk of the sample. The intensity of the scattered light after the pressure jump remains first unchanged. Only after a time lag τ a steep intensity increase is observed. The dependence of τ on the superheating, on sample size, on the position of the scattering volume in the sample, on crystal orientation, on the scattering angle and on the crystal quality is examined. τ depends only on superheating and crystal quality within experimental sensitivity. After a superheating of more than 5°C the optical appearance of ice is like opalescent glass. The observations are compatible with the assumption that the ice has been superheated with respect to the melt and that homogeneous nucleation occurs in the metastable state. The equilibrium curve iceI h —water has been determined.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: bone metastasis ; cell line ; demethylation ; estrogen receptor ; human breast cancer ; vimentin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The LCC15-MB cell line was established from a femoral bone metastasis that arose in a 29-year-old woman initially diagnosed with an infiltrating ductal mammary adenocarcinoma. The tumor had a relatively high (8%) S-phase fraction and 1/23 positive lymph nodes (LN). Both the primary tumor and LN metastasis were positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), but lacked erbB2 expression. Approximately one year later, the patient presented with a 0.8 cm comedo-type intraductal mammary adenocarcinoma in the left breast that was negative for ER and PgR, but positive for erbB2. Thirty-five months after the initial diagnosis she was treated for acute skeletal metastasis, and stabilized with a hip replacement. At this time, tumor cells were removed from surplus involved bone, inoculated into cell culture, and developed into the LCC15-MB cell line. The bone metastasis was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma lacking ER, PgR, and erbB2, characteristics shared by the LCC15-MB cells, although ER can be re-expressed by treatment of the LCC15-MB cells for 5 days with 75 μM 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. The LCC15-MB cell line is tumorigenic when implanted subcutaneously in NCr nu/nu mice and produces long-bone metastases after intracardiac injection. Although the bone metastasis from which the LCC15-MB cell line was derived lacked vimentin (VIM) expression, the original primary tumor and lymph node metastasis were strongly VIM positive, as are LCC15-MB cells in vitro and in nude mice. The karyotype and isozyme profiles of LCC15-MB cells are consistent with its origin from a human female, with most chromosome counts in the hypertriploid range. Thirty-two marker chromosomes are present. These cells provide an in vitro/in vivo model in which to study the inter-relationships between ER, VIM, and bone metastasis in human breast cancer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The effect of angiotensin II (A II) on the release of catecholamines was examined on 6 anesthetized dogs. Subpressor (5 ng/kg/min) and high pressor doses (1000 ng/kg/min) of A II were infused into an internal carotid artery. While subpressor doses of A II caused no increase of the catecholamine excretion, both epinephrine and norepinephrine excretion increased considerably under pressor doses of A II. The increase of the epinephrine excretion was statistically significant (p〈0,05). Considering the partly contradictory results of other authors, the discussion deals mainly with problems of dose, mode and site of action of A II and the influence of anesthesia. Finally, a possible significance of our results for the pathogenesis of special types of arterial hypertension is discussed.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Wirkung von Angiotensin II (A II) auf den Katecholaminhaushalt wurde an 6 narkotisierten Hunden geprüft. Dabei wurden subpressorische (5 ng/kg/min) und stark pressorische (1000 ng/kg/min) Angiotensin-Dosen, denen jeweils Infusionen von 0,9%igen NaCl-Lösungen vorausgingen, in die Arteria carotis interna infundiert. Während unter subpressorischen A II-Infusionen keine Steigerung der Katecholaminausscheidung beobachtet werden konnte, stieg die Adrenalin- und Noradrenalinexkretion unter der pressorischen A II-Gabe deutlich an. Die Erhöhung der Adrenalinausscheidung war dabei statistisch signifikant (p〈0,05). Die Ergebnisse werden im Zusammenhang mit den zum Teil unterschiedlichen Befunden anderer Autoren besprochen, wobei vor allem Fragen des Angriffspunktes und des Wirkungsmechanismus von A II, der A II-Dosierung und der Narkose erörtert werden. Schließlich wird diskutiert, welche Bedeutung die Befunde im Hinblick auf die Pathogenese besonderer Hypertonieformen besitzen können.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The effect of hydrochlorothiazide on plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone excretion rate (AER) were examined in 10 normal persons. At the same time, determinations of serum and urine electrolytes, of hematocrit and of fluid balance were carried out. In that group which recieved 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrex®) daily for 7 days, the PRA rose significantly on the 2nd and 4th day and the AER on the 3rd day after the beginning of diuretic treatment. A decline to normal in both parameters set in on the 6th and 7th day, respectively. Considerable changes in serum electrolytes and hematocrit were not registered. The stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) could be correlated with elevated natriuresis and diuresis. Kaliuresis rose considerably as well so that the Na/K quotient in urine fell under 1. In that group which recieved 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide daily for a period of 6 weeks, no significant changes were noticed in PRA, AER, serum electrolytes or hematocrit after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of diuretic treatment. There was no development of secondary hyperaldosteronism under extended saluretic treatment. The effect of sodium restriction as well as saluretica-induced sodium excretion on the RAAS is discussed. Finally, the possibilities are discussed which can cause a retreat in stimulation of the RAAS despite extended treatment with diuretics.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Wirkung von Hydrochlorothiazid auf die Plasma-Renin-Aktivität (PRA) und die Aldosteron-Exkretionsrate (AER) wird bei 10 Normalpersonen untersucht. Gleichzeitig werden Bestimmungen der Serum- und Urinelektrolyte, des Hämatokrits und der Flüssigkeitsbilanz durchgeführt. In derjenigen Gruppe, die während 7 Tagen täglich 50 mg Hydrochlorothiazid (Esidrex®) erhielt, steigen die PRA am 2. und 4. Tag und die AER am 3. Tag nach Beginn der Diuretikagabe signifikant an, während am 6. bzw. am 7. Tag ein Abfall beider Parameter zur Norm einsetzt. Wesentliche Änderungen der Serumelektrolyte und des Hämatokrits werden nicht registriert. Die Stimulation des Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron-Systems (RAAS) kann mit einer erhöhten Natriurese und Diurese korreliert werden. Die Kaliurese steigt ebenfalls deutlich an, so daß der Na/K-Quotient im Urin unter 1 abfällt. In derjenigen Gruppe, die während 6 Wochen täglich 50 mg Hydrochlorothiazid erhielt, werden nach 2, 4 und 6 Wochen der Diuretikaverabreichung keine signifikanten Veränderungen der PRA, AER, Serumelektrolyte und des Hämatokrits festgestellt. Es entwickelt sich demnach unter längerdauernden Saluretikagaben kein sekundärer Hyperaldosteronismus. Die Wirkung sowohl einer Natriumrestriktion als auch einer saluretikainduzierten Natriumexkretion auf das RAAS wird besprochen. Schließlich werden die Möglichkeiten diskutiert, die einen Rückgang der Stimulation des RAAS trotz andauernder Diuretikagaben bewirken können.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Two patients were submitted to a constant sodium diet and 3 mg d-aldosterone/day. One of them suffered from a craniopharyngeoma and pituitary insufficiency, the other one from Cushing's syndrome due to a local malignant chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary. The patient with Cushing's syndrome was studied after coagulation of the pituitary. Both showed the typical renal escape-phenomenon after a few days. These data suggest that the pituitary does not seem to be an important factor in the renal escape-phenomenon. The theories which could account for this phenomenon are discussed.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Durch Gabe von 3 mg d-Aldosteron täglich i.m. unter gleichzeitiger Natriumbelastung konnte bei einem Patienten mit Kraniopharyngeom und Panhypopituitarismus sowie bei einer Patientin mit Cushing-Symptomatik bei einem lokal malignen chromophoben Hypophysenadenom nach Hypophysencoagulation zuerst eine positive Natriumbilanz und nach einigen Tagen das typische renale Escape-Phänomen hervorgerufen werden. Die menschliche Hypophyse scheint demnach nicht entscheidend am Zustandekommen des Escape-Phänomens beteiligt zu sein. Die Theorien, die heute zur Erklärung des Escape-Phänomens herangezogen werden können, werden diskutiert.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Determinations of the plasma renin activity (PRA) and the aldosterone excretion rate (AER) were carried out in two patients with idiopathic edema. The PRA basic values were found to be within normal range in both patients, while a large increase in the PRA resulted following stimulation through salt deprivation and orthostasis, as can be observed especially in renovascular and malignant hypertension. The AER were also normal and increased clearly only after administration of saluretics. The results are evaluated in view of the pathophysiological disturbances, which lay at the root of this particular form of edema. Furthermore, the other factors besides the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system are discussed, which can be regarded as responsible for the etiology or pathogenesis of the idiopathic edema.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei 2 Patientinnen mit idiopathischen Ödemen wurden Bestimmungen der Plasmareninaktivität (PRA) und der Aldosteronexkretionsrate (AER) durchgeführt. Die PRA-Basiswerte lagen bei beiden Patientinnen im Normbereich, während nach Stimulation durch Salzentzug und Orthostase ein starker Anstieg der PRA erfolgte, wie man ihn vor allem bei der renovasculären und bei der malignen Hypertonie beobachten kann. Die AER waren ebenfalls normal und wurden nur nach Gaben von Saluretica deutlich erhöht. Die Befunde werden im Hinblick auf die pathophysiologischen Störungen erörtert, die dieser besonderen Ödemerkrankung zugrundeliegen. Weiterhin werden die Faktoren diskutiert, die neben dem Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron-System für die Ätiologie oder die Pathogenese der idiopathischen Ödeme als verantwortlich betrachtet werden.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Pesticides ; Hexachlorocyclohexane ; Lindane ; Health supervision ; Benzenehexachloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sixty male workers in a lindane (y-hexachlorocyclohexane)-producing factory were examined with regard to health in comparison with an external control group of 20 clerks. Case history, physical examination, neurologic status, and ECG revealed no significant differences between groups. However, the following significant differences in clinical-chemical blood tests were ascertained: higher polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, lower lymphocyte count, higher reticulocyte count, lower prothrombin (Quick's) test, and lower blood concentrations of creatinine and uric acid. No significant differences were observed in total red and white blood cell as well as platelet counts, hemoglobin content, the other counts of differential blood picture, γ-GT, GOT, GPT, LDH, cholinesterase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and urea. In spite of a pronounced exposure to the α-, β-, and γ-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane, no signs of severe impairment of health were observed; only small deviations in some laboratory tests were found having no pathologic significance. However, biological monitoring and health supervision of HCH-exposed workers should be carried out.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Pesticides ; Hexachlorocyclohexane ; Lindane benzenehexachloride ; Sex hormones
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane)-producing factory 54 male workers (mean age 40 years, mean duration of exposure 8 years) were studied with regard to their blood levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. Twenty clerks of nearly the same age were examined for control purposes in the same way. Serum-LH concentrations of the exposed workers were significantly higher than in controls. Geometric mean values were 8.8 mIU/ml and 5.7 mIU/ml respectively. On the other hand, FSH levels were insignificantly higher. Concerning testosterone concentrations in serum, these were found to be slightly lower in the group of workers than in control persons but this difference could not be proved to be statistically significant. These results indicate certain perturbations in sex hormone regulation probably as a consequence of HCH-exposure. To judge the pathological significance of these alterations further investigation will be necessary.
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