Key words Intramembranous ossification
Muscle fiber type
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Previous studies using parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) null mutant mice have indicated severe abnormalities in the endochondral ossification, suggesting that PTHrP affects chondrocyte differentiation. In this study, we found in newborn PTHrP-deficient mice some deformities in the mandible that is formed via intramembranous ossification. The mandibular ramus was bent downwards and a prominent bone crest to which the deep layer of masseter muscle was tendinously attached was observed in the mandibular body. Transmission electron microscopic studies showed that active bone formation was progressing along the tendon fibers of the masseter muscle. The examination of 3-D reconstruction models indicated that the mandibular ramus was bent at the site of muscle attachment, which was shifted in the direction of the muscle fibers. Muscle fiber type analysis using myosin ATPase staining showed that the masseter muscle in the newborn PTHrP-deficient mice contained numerous type 2B fibers, demonstrating premature maturation of this muscle. Based on these findings, we speculated that premature maturation of the masseter muscle leads, probably due to increased tensile forces, to accelerated bone crest formation and subsequent bending of the mandibular ramus. These results further suggest that PTHrP is involved in the regulation of muscle development in normal animals.
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