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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Peroxisomes of the digestive glands of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk, were investigated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using rabbit antibodies against several mammalian hepatic peroxisomal proteins. Western blot analysis of main subcellular fractions revealed immunoreactive polypeptides with molecular weights comparable to those of the corresponding mammalian hepatic proteins. They could be localized to the peroxisomal matrix in the case of catalase, multifunctional enzyme (PH), and palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), and to the peroxisomal membrane in respect to PMP 70. The purification of peroxisomes by metrizamide density gradient centrifugation revealed the existence of two subpopulations with densities of 1.16 and 1.20 g cm–3 exhibiting different protein compositions. In paraffin sections, positive immunolabeling for catalase was distributed along the apical cytoplasm of the epithelia of digestive ducts and stomach and throughout the cytoplasm of digestive tubule cells. The peroxisomal β-oxidation enzymes, AOX and PH, also appeared predominantly in the ducts and the stomach epithelia with a weaker immunolabeling in the tubules. At the electron microscopic level a clear labeling with gold particles was observed in the peroxisomal matrix with the anti-guinea pig catalase antibody. In addition to peroxisomes, the anti-PH antibody also labeled the mitochondria. The similarity in the protein composition of molluscan and mammalian peroxisomes as revealed by the present study indicates that those proteins have been well conserved in evolution suggesting that functionally peroxisomes in molluscs could also be involved in the metabolism of lipids and in detoxification of xenobiotics. Thus, the antibodies tested could provide useful tools for detection of peroxisomal induction in molluscan biomonitoring programs for the assessment of aquatic environmental pollution.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The application of an automatic image analyzer (TAS, Leitz, Wetzlar) for determination of labeling density in protein A-gold labeled sections is described. Electron micrographs of rat liver labeled with 12 nm gold particles for peroxisomal enzymes are placed on the macrounit of TAS and the images of peroxisomes on TAS-monitor are contoured with a light pen. The instrument measures the surface of the contoured areas. Based on their gray level, the gold particles over the peroxisome are detected automatically and counted and the labeling density for each peroxisome is calculated.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Epon-embedded biological materials exhibit well preserved ultrastructure but generally weak antigenicity. Brief etching of ultrathin Epon sections with resin solvent, ethanolic sodium hydroxide, brought about a nearly 2-fold increase in the immunogold labeling density of rat and human hepatic peroxisomes after incubation with antisera against catalase and 3 enzymes of lipid β-oxidation: acyl-CoA oxidase, bifunctional protein (enoyl-CoA hydratase-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. The etching was superior to pretreatment with an oxidant, sodium metaperiodate. Despite some deterioration of the cellular ultrastructure, the obtained enhancement of the sensitivity of the protein A-gold method may be helpful in cases when the antigenicity to be detected is strongly inhibited by epoxy resin embedding.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Infrared (IR) molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747–400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Image analysis ; Morphometry ; Peroxisomes ; Catalase ; Cytochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The feasibility of the application of a television-based image analyzer, the Texture Analysis System (TAS, Leitz Wetzlar, FRG) in conjunction with a light microscope for morphometric studies of hepatic peroxisomes has been investigated. Rat liver peroxisomes were stained with the alkaline-DAB method for localization of catalase and semi-thin (0.25 and 1 μm) sections of plastic-embedded material were examined under an oil immersion objective. The TAS detected the peroxisomal profiles selectively and determined their morphometric parameters automatically. The same parameters were obtained also by morphometric analysis of electron micrographs from the same material. The volume density of peroxisomes determined by TAS in semithin sections of normal liver, after correction for section thickness, is quite close to the corresponding value obtained by morphometry of electron micrographs. The difference is approximately 20%. In animals treated with the hypolipidemic drug bezafibrate, which causes proliferation of peroxisomes, TAS detected readily the increase in volume density of peroxisomes in semithin sections. In comparison with electron microscopy, however, the light-microscopic approach seems to underestimate the proliferation. The lower resolution of the light microscope and overlapping of neighbouring particles in relatively thick sections used for lightmicroscopic analysis may account for the differences. The present study has demonstrated the usefulness of automatic image analysis in conjunction with selective cytochemical staining of peroxisomes for morphometry of this organelle in rat liver. The light-microscopic approach is not only faster but is also extremely economical by obviating the use of an electron microscope.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Image analysis ; Morphometry ; Peroxisomes ; Catalase ; Cytochemistry ; Liver ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The feasibility of the application of an electronic image analyzer, the Texture Analysis System (TAS) (Leitz Wetzlar, FRG), for fast automatic ultrastructural morphometric studies of hepatic peroxisomes has been investigated. Rat liver peroxisomes were stained selectively with the alkaline DAB procedure for localization of catalase in order to obtain sufficient contrast for automatic detection by TAS. Electron micrographs of ultrathin sections from this material were analyzed both automatically by TAS and manually by using a digitizer tablet connected with an Apple IIe microcomputer. The results showed negligible differences. As far as the speed of the operation is concerned, the image analysis was 4–5 times faster than the manual technique. In further studies, the importance of using DAB-stained sections for accurate morphometric studies of peroxisomes was demonstrated by comparing the results of such DAB-stained preparations with unstained material. This revealed that the numerical density was lower and the average profile diameter higher in unstained sections. The value for volume density was also affected, being about 30% lower in such preparations. It is likely that in unstained preparations small peroxisomes without crystalline nucleoids were frequently not identified as such and were not taken into account in morphometric calculations. These observations establish that computer-controlled electronic image analysis in conjunction with selective cytochemical staining of peroxisomes for catalase provides a fast, accurate and reliable method for ultrastructural morphometric studies of this organelle in rat liver.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words Dissexuality ; Pedophilia ; Prognosis ; Follow-up study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract In terms of identifying socially-dysfunctional forms of sexuality – regardless of the legal valuation – dissexuality is defined as “an expression of social failure in sexual behavior.” This failure was the subject of a longitudinal analysis of 186 expert-appraised pedophile sexual delinquents at the University of Kiel from 1945 through 1981. Of the child molesters 121 were followed up between September 1990 and September 1992 and 100 were personally contacted. The goal was to empirically develop prognosis criteria, given knowledge of the former delinquents’ social development as well as sexual/dissexual practices, which could be of both forensic and interdisciplinary use. Among the bi- and homosexually-orientated pedophiles, the number of offenders for which the act is one of “compensation” was half of the initial collective. In contrast, this number was three-quarters for the heterosexually-orientated perpetrators. Correspondingly, the other half of the bi- and homosexually-orientated pedophiles were either exclusive-type or non-exclusive-type pedophiles (the so-called “true” pedophiles). Among the heterosexually-orientated offenders, the number was only onequarter. According to the empirical data, we may expect a biographically continuing potential of dissexual behavior for only the exclusive and the non-exclusive type of pedophilia. Most of the relapsed dissexual activities showed up a long time after the expert’s report. This is true for both the heterosexually- and the bi- and homosexually orientated groups. The present evaluation of the results allows assignment of behavior for certain delinquent typologies restricted to life phases or lifelong dissexual behavior.
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