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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Colo-rectal cancer ; Family history ; Case-control study ; HNPCC frequency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The risk of colo-rectal cancer (CRC) in subjects with a positive family history (FH+) for malignancy has been assessed by means of a case-control study carried out between 1987–89 in an area of about 215,000 inhabitants in Southern Italy. One hundred and nineteen CRC cases were compared with 119 sex - and age - frequency matched population controls. Detailed pedigrees were collected at the family homes of both cases and controls. The odds ratio (OR) of CRC, adjusted by means of logistic regression for age, sex and number of first-degree relatives, increased with the number of any kinds of cancers in first-degree relatives with a significant linear trend (p = 0.042), while there was no risk with a FH+ for digestive cancer excluding CRC or for other cancers excluding large bowel and digestive organs. The OR (and 95% confidence interval) for CRC was 5.9 (1.64–21.23) for at least one first-degree relative with CRC. After a mutual adjustment between CRC and the other cancers in the families of cases and controls, the risk of CRC with a FH+ for other cancers did not change, revealing a strong association (p = 0.002) for CRC alone. From the analysis of the family history of cancer in the case group, the relative frequency of families that satisfied the criteria for so-called hereditary non-polyposic colo-rectal cancer (HNPCC) was 2.6%. The increased relative risk of CRC observed only in families with FH+ for CRC is a supportive finding for organizing and planning prevention and genetic counselling for these families, whose members should be referred for further assessment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; diet ; nutrition ; Poland ; stomach cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A hospital-based, multicenter, case-control study has been performed in Poland covering 741 incident stomach-cancer cases (520 males and 221 females) and the same number of controls. All stomach-cancer diagnoses were evaluated for histologic type according to the Lauren criteria. Fifty-one percent were of the intestinal type, 35 percent of the diffuse type, and 8.5 percent of the mixed type. The frequency of consumption of individual food items and several food groups was analyzed and the association of various foods with stomach cancer risk was evaluated after controlling for sex, age, occupation, education, and residency. Increased consumption of sausages was related significantly to gastric cancer risk, whereas increased consumption of cheese products, nonwhite bread, vegetables, and fruit was associated with decreased risk. A particularly strong decrease in risk was associated with consumption of radishes and onions. When consumption of fruits and vegetables, sausages, nonwhite bread, and cheese were introduced simultaneously in a multivariate model, independent effects were found only for fruit and vegetables, sausages, and nonwhite bread. The use of table salt, the frequency of eating hot meals, and an irregular eating pattern were also associated with increased risk, while additional consumption of fruit between meals showed reduced risk. If a reduction in vegetable and fruit consumption took place after marriage, an increased risk for stomach cancer was found, whereas augmented consumption of these food items after marriage decreased the risk. Separate risk models were calculated for stomach cancer of the intestinal and diffuse types, but both histologic varieties showed the same pattern of associations with dietary risk factors.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Ultrasound densitometry — Body composition — Fat mass — Lean body mass — Epidemiology.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Body mass is known to be related to measures of bone mineral density (BMD) as well as to parameters of quantitative ultrasound (US). To examine the effect of the body compartment's fat mass and lean body mass on quantitative ultrasonic bone parameters, data from a sample of 3241 German women were analyzed. Anthropometric measures, including skinfold thickness, were obtained from standardized measurements, and fat and lean body mass were derived from classical regression formulas based on skinfold measurements. Ultrasonic bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were determined. Women were grouped into pre- and postmenopausal status; postmenopausal women were further stratified into ever and never hormone-replacement user. Correlation analysis indicated lean body mass to be stronger correlated with BUA than fat mass in both pre- (r = 0.23; P= 0.0001) and postmenopausal women with (r = 0.19; P= 0.0001) and without hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (r = 0.26; p = 0.0001). SOS demonstrated very small or no associations with body mass or its components. Multiple linear regression models were used to describe the relationship among body weight, fat mass, and lean body mass on BUA after adjustment for confounding variables. Both in pre- and postmenopausal women lean body mass was more strongly related to BUA than fat mass. However, body mass measures explained only small amounts of the overall variance in BUA (R2= 1–3% in premenopausal women; R2= 1% postmenopausal with HRT; R2= 4–5% in postmenopausal women without HRT). In conclusion, the strong influence of body mass and its components previously reported for BMD was not observed for quantitative ultrasonic bone parameters.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Stomach cancer ; Risk factors ; Vitamin C ; Nitrate ; Epidemiological studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this paper the progress of epidemiological research in stomach cancer during 1980–1990 is reviewed in respect to regional variation, etiology, and formation of carcinogens. The evaluation of 4 cohort and 16 case-control studies revealed a consistently inverse relationship of stomach cancer risk with raw vegetables, fruit, and wholemeal bread consumption and with vitamin C and carotene intake. Milk, cooked vegetables and vitamins A and E were not consistently found to be related to stomach cancer risk. Positive associations of increasing consumption with stomach cancer risk were occasionally found for processed or particularly prepared meat and fish, and for nitrite. Dietary nitrate intake did not appear to be related to stomach cancer risk in these studies. This latter observation is also supported by metabolic studies in high- and low-risk areas for stomach cancer. Consistently among studies, increased risk for stomach cancer was also found for later availability of refrigeration facilities in the household, non-centralized water supply (especially well water), and high salt intake. Prospective studies agreed in an increased risk for stomach cancer for cigarette smoking, but not for alcohol drinking, whereas case-control studies showed divergent results on these factors. Recent metabolic studies in high- and low-risk areas for stomach cancer or in groups with precursor lesions, with theN-nitrosoproline test as a marker for endogenous nitrosation, revealed inconsistent results. Higher nitrite concentration and increased pH in stomach juice were found to be associated with precursor conditions for stomach cancer. It is still not clear whether intake of preformed carcinogens or endogenous formation in the stomach with or without the inclusion of nitrite is the most important source of tumor-initiating or-promoting substances. Preservation or preparation of meat and fish may play an important role in this process, and vitamin C may be an inhibiting substance.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Gastric cancer ; mortality ; epidemiology ; Time trends ; Regional analysis ; Birth cohorts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Stomach cancer represents an important cause of death in the Federal Republic of Germany, the regional analysis of mortality rates showing that the rates in Bavaria lay significantly above the national average during the years 1952 till 1978. Within this Federal State the mortality again is not uniform but regions in the Northeast with high rates are distinguishable from low mortality in the Southwest. Furthermore, the analysis by age and birth cohorts shows a decrease of mortality from stomach cancer with later years of birth. The considerable differences in consecutive birth cohorts, given the regional patterns, may indicate a varying exposure to etiological factors, most likely to be sought in the early life of the later cancer victims. In an attempt to clarify the reasons for these regional particularities a case-control study is designed to investigate, among other factors, the etiological relevance of nutritional habits. The possible influence of competing causes of death is discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Medical microbiology and immunology 104 (1925), S. 91-118 
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: D2 18Omethod ; indirect calorimetry ; energy metabolism ; obesity ; D2 18O-Methode ; indirekte Kalorimetrie ; Energiemetabolismus ; Übergewicht
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Für die Bestimmung des Gesamtenergieumsatzes wurde eine neuartige2H/1H-und18O/16O-Äquilibriereinheit getestet, optimiert und eingesetzt. Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß übergewichtige Frauen und Männer, verglichen mit schlanken Probanden, sowohl erhöhte Ruhe-Nüchternumsätze, als auch erhöhte Gesamtenergieumsätze aufweisen. Der physical activity level (PAL)-Index weist tendenziell eine Verminderung auf, was eine erniedrigte physische Aktivität bei Übergewichtigen vermuten läßt.
    Notes: Summary A new2H/1H and18O/16O equilibration device was tested, standardized and employed for the determination of total energy expenditure. It was shown that overweight men and women have increased resting metabolic rate as well as increased total energy expenditure when compared to their lean counterparts. The physical activity level (PAL)index was slightly decreased which possibly suggests a decreased physical activity in obese people.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: Data analysis ; health status ; food pattern ; nutrition behavior ; research strategy ; Gesundheitsstatus ; Ernährungsverhalten ; Forschungsstrategie ; Datenanalyse ; Nahrungsmuster ; Ernährungsepidemiologie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Beziehungen zwischen Ernährungsfaktoren und Gesundheit in epidemiologischen Studien sind oft inkonsistent. Eine der möglichen Ursachen für diese Gegebenheit kann darin liegen, daß die Vielzahl der potentiellen Ernährungsdimensionen in der spezifischen Untersuchungssituation in unzulänglichem Maße berücksichtigt wurden. Solche Dimensionsbereiche sind vor allem die physiologische Individualität von Menschen, deren verschiedenen Lebensumwelten und die zahlreichen Interdependenzen zwischen Ernährungsvariablen. Diese Tatsachen sollten in ernährungsepidemiologischen Studien dadurch besser erfaßt werden, daß sowohl die Studienmodelle als auch die Datenanalysen entsprechend ausgerichtet werden. Anstelle von Untersuchungen an heterogenen Stichproben ist es ratsam, sich auf spezifische „Typen“ zu konzentrieren, wobei gemäß dem jeweiligen Studienziel solche „Typen“ aus den physiologischen Besonderheiten (z. B. Cholesterinempfindlichkeit), aus biologisch-konstitutionellen Faktoren (z. B. Körperbau-Typus), aus Lebensstil-Eigenschaften oder anderen Faktorenbereichen abgeleitet werden können. Die Variationsbreite der Ernährungsfaktoren geht über die üblicherweise verwendeten Nährstoffdimensionen hinaus, doch sie läßt sich durch integrierte Indizes — die „Nahrungsmuster“ — zusammenfassen. Zu solchen „Nahrungsmustern“ kann man auf verschiedene Weise kommen. Sie können aus Theorien abgeleitet werden und zu bestimmten Bewertungsrastern führen. Man kann sie aber auch mittels multivariater statistischer Analyse suchen. Die prinzipiellen Wege, die zu „Nahrungsmustern“ führen, werden dargestellt und diskutiert. Die hier vorgestellten und diskutierten Ideen leiten zu einem verbesserten Untersuchungsmodell für ernährungsepidemiologische Studien über. Die „Nahrungsmuster“ nehmen dabei eine wichtige Position ein. Man kann annehmen, daß durch diesen Untersuchungsansatz neue Erkenntnisse über die Beziehungen zwischen Ernährung und Gesundheit sichtbar werden, die helfen, den bisher noch diffusen Untersuchungsbereichen klare Konturen zu geben.
    Notes: Summary The relation between nutritional factors and health investigated in epidemiological studies are often inconsistent. One of the reasons for such findings can be the improper addressing of the multitude of nutritional dimensions in the specific study situation such as physiological individuality of human beings, different living conditions, or numerous interdependencies between nutritional variables. Epidemiological research in nutrition and health should recognize such facts and work with appropiate study models and adequate data analyses. Instead of investigating heterogenous populations it is advisable to concentrate on specific “types” of people. Under consideration of the study goals such “types” can be compiled according to physiological properties, e.g., cholesterol sensitivity, or biological-constitutional factors such as body build, life-style entities, or other factors. The variety of nutrition factors far beyond the commonly applied nutrient values can be expressed in integrated indices of “food patterns”. Such “food patterns” can be derived in many ways. They can be deduced from theories by using specific criteria, but also explored by modern multivariate statistical analyses. The ways leading to “food patterns” are discussed. The ideas presented and discussed in this paper lead to an improved model for research in the field of nutrition and health with integrated indices of “food patterns” as the critical point. It is assumed that using this approach will generate new insight in the relation of nutrition and health, a currently still diffuse research area.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma ; case-control study ; fruit ; vegetable ; meat ; Nierenzellkarzinom ; Fall-Kontrollstudie ; Obst ; Gemüse ; Fleisch
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der Anstieg der Inzidenz von Nierenzellkarzinomen in den westlichen Ländern erfordert eine besondere Beachtung der Ätiologie dieses Tumors. Ernährung und das Erkrankungsrisiko für ein Nierenzellkarzinom könnten assoziiert sein, da Übergewicht als Risikofaktor für diese Erkrankung in vielen Studien identifiziert werden konnte. Eine Fall-Kontrollstudie mit 277 inzidenten Nierenkrebsfällen (ICD 189.0) und 286 bevölkerungsbezogenen Kontrollpersonen wurde im Rhein-Neckar-Odenwald-Raum, Deutschland, in der Zeit von 1989–1991 durchgeführt. Das Studienprotokoll umfaßte zunächst ein persönliches Interview über demographische Variablen, frühere Erkrankungen, Medikamenteneinnahme, Rauchen, Berufshistorie, berufsbedingte Expositionen, Getränkeaufnahme und Übergewicht. Zusätzlich wurden alle Studienteilnehmer gefragt, ob sie einen selbstausfüllbaren Häufigkeitsfragebogen mit 122 Nahrungsmitteln ausfüllen würden, um die Nahrungsaufnahme abzuschätzen. 65 % der Fälle und 74 % der Kontrollpersonen beteiligten sich an diesem Studienteil (N=155 Fälle und 212 Kontrollpersonen). Dies waren 47 % der studienrelevanten Fälle (N=328) und 56 % der Kontrollpersonen (N=381). Es konnte keine auffällige Auswahlverzerrung beobachtet werden in bezug auf Altersgruppe, Geschlecht, sozioökonomischen Status oder BMI bei der in diesen Studienteil einbezogenen Gruppe im Vergleich zu allen Fällen und Kontrollpersonen. Die relative Risiken (RR) für verschiedene Aspekte der Nahrungsaufnahme zeigten ein signifikant erhöhtes Risiko mit einer erhöhten Aufnahme von Streichfetten/Soßen (RR der hohen Aufnahme im Vergleich zur niedrigen Aufnahme: 1.90 (95 % Konfidenzintervall (95 % KI) 1.08–3.32)). Ein erhöhtes RR wurde für die Aufnahme von Fleisch und Fleischwaren beobachtet (RR der hohen Aufnahme im Vergleich zur niedrigen Aufnahme 1.71 (95 % KI 0.96–3.04)) und für energieadjustierte Fettaufnahme (RR einer hohen Aufnahme im Vergleich zu einer niedrigen Aufnahme: 1.64 (95 % KI 0.95–2.83)). Ein vermindertes RR fand sich bei einer erhöhten Aufnahme von Obst (RR einer hohen Aufnahme im Vergleich zu einer niedrigen Aufnahme: 0.40 (95 % KI 0.23–0.96)) und der Vitamin-C-Aufnahme (RR einer hohen Aufnahme im Vergleich zu einer niedrigen Aufnahme 0.62 (95 % KI 0.37–1.05)). Die Aufnahme von Getränken, Zubereitungsmethoden und andere Angaben zum Ernährungsverhalten waren nicht mit dem Risiko des Nierenzellkarzinoms assoziiert. Die RR für den Verzehr von Streichfetten/Soßen und Vitamin C wurden in zwei Modellen getestet, mit und ohne BMI als Kovariable. In beiden Modellen ergaben sich signifikante Beziehungen zwischen den Ernährungsvariablen und dem Risiko eines Nierenzellkarzinom. Diese Resultate geben Hinweise, daß bestimmte Ernährungsmuster in Verbindung mit Übergewicht herangezogen werden können, um das Auftreten von Nierenzellkarzinomen in industrialisierten Ländern zu erklären.
    Notes: Summary Increasing incidence of renal cell carcinoma in Western countries raises particular attention to its etiology. Diet may be related to risk for renal cell carcinoma since obesity has been linked with this malignant condition. A case-control study with 277 incident renal cell cancer patients (ICD 189.0) and 286 population controls was conducted in the Rhein-Neckar-Odenwald area, Germany, in the period of 1989 to 1991. The core study protocol included a face-to-face interview about demographical parameters, previous diseases, medication, tobacco smoking, occupational history, occupational exposures, beverage consumption, and obesity. In addition, study participants were asked to fill in a self-administered food frequency questionnaire with 122 food items to estimate overall food intake. Fifty-six % of the cases and 74 % of the controls participated in this part of the study (n=155 cases and 212 controls). This was 47 % of the original cases (n=328) and 56 % of the controls (n=381). No selection bias could be identified with regard to age group, gender, educational status or recent BMI in the analyzed group compared with the eligible cases and controls. Relative risk (RR) estimates for tertiles of consumption revealed a significantly increased risk with increasing intake of fat spread (RR of high intake compared to low intake: 1.90 (95 % CI 1.08–3.32)). Increased risk was also found for intake of meat and meat products (RR of high intake compared to low intake: 1.71 (95 % CI 0.96–3.04)) and energy adjusted fat (RR of high intake compared to low intake: 1.64 (95 % CI 0.95–2.83)). A decreased risk was seen with increasing intake of fruit (RR of high intake compared to low intake: 0.40 (95 % CI 0.23–0.69)) and of vitamin C (RR of high intake compared to low intake: 0.62 (95 % CI 0.37–1.05)). Beverage consumption, preparation of food and eating pattern were not linked with risk of renal cell cancer. The relative risk estimates of spreading fat (sauce and vitamin C intake were tested in two models, with and without including BMI as covariate. In both models significant associations of these nutritional variables with risk for renal cell cancer remained. The current results indicate that specific food pattern associated with obesity explain differences in incidence of renal cell carcinoma in industrialized countries.
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