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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Codeine ; paracetamol ; codeine-6-glucuronide ; pharmacokinetics ; metabolism ; partial clearance ; drug interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma and urine concentrations of codeine and its measurable metabolites were determined by HPLC in six healthy subjects after a single 30 mg oral dose of codeine either alone or after 7 doses of 1 g paracetamol 8 hourly. After codeine alone, the t1/2 (h), AUC (μmol·l−1·h) and CLR (ml·min−1) for codeine were 2.2, 0.81, and 252 respectively. These were not significantly altered by paracetamol: 2.2, 0.84, and 291 respectively. For codeine-6-glucuronide the values were 2.4, 22.0, and 29.7 respectively. These were not significantly different from those after codeine plus paracetamol: 2.4, 21.9, and 39.6. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in the apparent partial clearances (ml·min−1) of codeine to morphine (88 codeine alone, 70 codeine plus paracetamol), to norcodeine (71 codeine alone, 88 codeine plus paracetamol), and to codeine-6-glucoronide (820 codeine alone, 1022 codeine plus paracetamol). The urinary excretion of codeine-6-glucuronide, morphine, norcodeine, and codeine were not significantly different between the two treatments.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A novel immune algorithm for resolution and quantitative determination of the components in overlapping chromatograms was proposed by imitating biological immune systems. The algorithm takes an overlapping chromatogram as its input and subtracts the chromatograms of standard samples from the input by iteration of a network. When the residual does not change, the network will converge and chromatographic information of the components in overlapping chromatogram will be obtained. Both simulated and experimental data sets were investigated by the method. Results showed that both resolved results and recoveries of quantitative determination are satisfactory. Comparing with conventional least-square method, the immune algorithm is fast in calculation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Mit Hilfe der Naphthalin-Sublimationstechnik werden die Wärmeübergangs- und Druckverlustcharakteristiken in quer zur voll ausgebildeten Strömung bei berippten Ringkanälen experimentell ermittelt und Korrelationen zur Berechnung des Wärmeübergangskoeffizienten bei variablen InnendurchmesserD 0 des umschließenden Rohres angegeben. Ferner wird eine charakteristische Reynolds-Zahl vorgeschlagen, über die sich der dominierende Einfluß der Querrippen erfassen läßt. Es zeigte sich, daß der InnendurchmesserD 0 den Druckverlust wesentlich mehr beeinflußt als den Wärmeübergang. Auch wurde die Abhängigkeit des Gesamt-Übertragungsverhaltens vonD 0 bei gleicher Strömungsgeschwindigkeit bzw. Volumenstromdichte ermittelt. Es zeigte sich, daß die Ausbildung des Strömungsprofils bei Einlaufströmung den Wärmeübergang signifikant beeinflußt und deshalb im Experiment zu berücksichtigen ist.
    Notes: Abstract The characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop have been experimentally studied for the fully developed concentric annular flow with transverse fins normal to the flow direction by the naphthalene sublimation technique. Correlations for calculating the heat transfer coefficient with different inner diametersD 0 of the outer tube are presented. A “characteristic Reynolds number” has been proposed, by which the predominant role of the transverse fins can be evaluated. It has been indicated that the inner diameterD 0 has much more effect on pressure drop than on heat transfer. The effect ofD 0 on the overall performance is also compared under the same flow velocity or flow rate. It has been found that the effect of developing flow on heat transfer is significant and should be taken into account during experiment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract It has been experimentally researched that convective heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics in rectangular channels with staggered arrays of drop-shaped pin fins in crossflow of air. The effects of arrangements of pin fins on heat transfer and resistance are discussed and the row-by-row variations of the mean Nusselt numbers are presented. By means of the heat/mass transfer analogy and the naphthalene sublimation technique, the heat transfer coefficients on pin fins and on endwall (base plate) of the channel have been achieved respectively. The total mean heat transfer coefficients of pin fin channels are calculated and the resistance coefficients are also investigated. The experimental results show that heat transfer of a channel with drop-shaped pin fins is higher than that with circular pin fins while the resistance of the former is much lower than that of the latter in the Reynolds number range from 900 to 9000.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Thiodiglycolic acid ; Vinyl chloride ; Flame photometric detector ; Biological monitor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A simple and selective method to detect thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) in urine by flame-photometric-detector (FPD) of gas chromatograph (GC) is described. The detection limit of this method is less than 1 ng without disturbances. Urine from 64 subjects exposed to different air concentration of vinyl chloride (VCM) from 0.3 ppm to more than 100 ppm in three groups and 78 subjects was detected in this way. A comparison of the results of these groups shows significant differences between the control and two exposed groups.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-3058
    Keywords: Convergence property ; Error correction capability ; Multiple valued feedback neural networks ; Multiple valued and piecewised-constant function ; Multiple valued recurrent correlation neural networks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we consider two kinds of neural networks in which the activation function of each neuron is a multiple valued, piecewised-constant function. The main advantages of the proposed models are that they can store patterns with different grey levels, and that they can store binary patterns with much fewer neurons than the existing models. We prove theoretically the convergence property of the proposed models. Different synthesis methods are developed to guarantee the storage of desired patterns as asymptotic equilibria. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the new models.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hybrid necrosis ; Wheat ; Immature embryoculture ; Young ear culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Hybrid necrosis in wheat is a barrier to gene transfer in wheat breeding practice. It is based on two complementary genes, Ne1 and Ne2. Recovery mutants (Re1, Re2 and Re3) which can grow to maturity were recovered from immature embryo cultures of necrotic hybrids between T. aestivum and T. durum. Cytological observation demonstrated that Re1 had 34 chromosomes instead of 35. This indicated that one of the chromosomes carrying the Ne genes was lost. Genetic study suggested that for Re1, the lost chromosome was chromosome 5B of the durum parental line. Re mutants are male sterile but can be maintained through a young ear culture method. Re mutants could be successfully pollinated by either parental line and the BC1 progeny is partially fertile. Re mutants were repeatedly induced in about 1% of the regenerated plants from immature embryo culture. This technique provides a practical way to bypass hybrid necrosis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: RFLP ; Genetic mapping ; Triticum turgidum Recombinant substitution lines (RSLs) ; Mapmaker G-Mendel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract RFLP-based genetic maps of chromosomes 6A and 6B of Triticum turgidum have been constructed using data obtained by the study of Triticum turgidum var ‘durum’ cv ‘Langdon’-T. t. var ‘dicoccoides’ recombinant substitution lines (RSLs) supplemented with data obtained from F3 families derived from ‘Langdon’ dicoccoides 6A and 6B disomic substitution lines. The average RFLP frequencies detected for the two chromosomes in a test of 45 DNA clones with six restriction enzymes were 56% and 53%, respectively, and a subset of 32 clones gave frequencies of 75% and 72%, respectively. Seventeen loci were mapped in 6A and 18 in 6B. With the possible exception of 5 loci in the centromeric region of 6A, all of the mapped 6A and 6B loci are located in the same arm as are homologous loci in hexaploid wheat, and the linear order of the loci is the same in the two chromosomes, except possibly close to the centromere. Major differences in genetic distances exist between homologous loci located in the proximal regions of the 6AL and 6BL linkage groups, however, the distances being much larger in the former than in the latter. The 6B maps that were constructed using data from both the RSL and the F2 populations and using data from the RSL population alone closely resemble one another, indicating that the 6B RSL population, composed of 85 lines, can be reliably used for genetic mapping. Additional studies must be conducted before the utility of the 6A RSL population, composed of 66 lines, can be adequately assessed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RDV ; Segment S8 ; Rice ; Transgenic plants ; Particle bombardment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The coding region of the eighth largest segment (S8) of the rice dwarf virus (RDV) was obtained from a RDV Fujian isolate. It was then cloned into pTrcHisA for expression in E. coli and into vector pE3 for plant transformation. By using callus derived from mature rice embryos as the target tissue, we obtained regenerated rice plants after bombardment of the former with plasmid pE3R8 containing the RDV S8 gene and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II). Southern blotting confirmed the integration of the RDV S8 gene into the rice genome. The expression of the outer coat protein in both E. coli and rice plants was confirmed by western blotting. The recovery of transgenic rice plants expressing S8 gene is an important step towards studying the function of the RDV genes and obtaining RDV-resistant rice plants.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Latexallergie ; Latexproteine ; Kreuzallergene ; HLA-Assoziation ; Prophylaxe ; Key words Latex allergy ; Latex proteins ; Crossreacting fruits ; HLA-association ; Prophylaxis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary During the last ten years better hygienic standards led to an increased use of natural latex gloves for protection of medical staff. During this time reports about an IgE mediated allergy to latex up to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions came up. This allergy was different from the known type IV reactions on latex additives. Health care workers and patients with multiple surgery were identified as high risk groups. For unknown reasons patients with spina bifida show the highest prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies. A preexisting atopy increases the risk of latex sensitization. Allergic reactions are caused mainly by medical treatments, especially surgery, when latex gloves and other latex containing articles are used. Allergenic proteins: Meanwhile some allergenic proteins in latex could be identified. Patients in different risk groups showed different prevalences of sensitization to these allergens. The way of allergen uptake (aerogen or by intraoperative direct mucosal contact) may play an important role in sensitization to different allergens. Some allergens like Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 6.02 habe been totally or partially sequenced; on Hev b 1 molecule several IgE binding epitopes have been localized. T lymphocytes could be estimated by latex proteins. There is an association between the HLA antigens DR4 and DQ8 and the specific IgE response to the latex allergen Hev b 6.02, in contrast no significant association was observed between the IgE response to Hev b 1 and HLA class II alleles. Crossreacting antibodies between latex and numerous tropical fruits are described. For some proteins structural homologies are well characterized. Diagnosis: For the diagnosis of latex allergy serologic tests (for instance the CAP system) are available. Latex protein extracts for skin prick tests are difficult to standardize. Prophylaxis: For high risk patients a primary prophylaxis is recommended, a secondary or tertiary prophylaxis allows safe operations without symptoms of latex allergy.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Im zeitlichen und wahrscheinlichen auch ursächlichem Zusammenhang mit dem steigenden Verbrauch von Latexhandschuhen wurde neben den schon bekannten Typ-IV-Allergien auf Zusatzstoffe des Latex auch über IgE vermittelte Typ-I-Sofortreaktionen bis zu lebensbedrohlichen anaphylaktischen Reaktionen berichtet. Als besondere Risikogruppen wurden neben medizinischem Personal Patienten mit multiplen Voroperationen identifiziert. Von ihnen haben aus noch nicht näher bekannten Gründen Patienten mit Spina bifida die höchsten Prävalenzen. Eine vorbestehende Atopie erhöht das Risiko der Latexsensibilisierung. Allergische Reaktionen auslösende Situationen sind v. a. bei medizinischen Maßnahmen verschiedenster Art gegeben, in denen Latexhandschuhe und andere Latexartikel verwendet werden. Allergene: Inzwischen konnten mehrere allergene Proeine im Latex identifiziert werden, die in unterschiedlicher Häufigkeit Risikogruppen sensibilisieren, wobei auch der Weg der Allergenaufnahme (aerogen, durch direkten intraoperativen Schleimhautkontakt) eine Rolle spielen dürfte. Einzelne Allergene (z. B. Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 6.02) wurden ganz oder teilweise sequenziert, für Hev b 1 liegen bereits Analysen der IgE-Bindungsstellen vor. Auch T-Zell-Stimulationsexperimente wurden mit einzelnen Proteinen erfolgreich durchgeführt. Die Assoziation der IgE-Antwort auf Hev b 6.02 mit den HLA-Antigenen DR4 und DQ8 konnte gesichert werden, eine signifikante Assoziation zwischen der IgE-Antwort auf Hev b 1 und dem HLA-System war nicht zu finden. Kreuzreagierende Antikörper sind zwischen Latex und zahlreichen exotischen Früchten beschrieben worden, deren Allergenhomologien z. T. bereits gut charakterisiert sind. Diagnose: Zur Diagnose der Latexallergie stehen z. Z. serologische Tests (z. B. CAP-System) und wenige schwer zu standardisierende Hauttests zur Verfügung. Prophylaxe: Bei Hochrisikopatienten wird erfolgreich eine primäre Prophylaxe angewandt, auch eine sekundäre oder tertiäre Prävention ermöglicht Operationen ohne Symptome der Latexallergie.
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