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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Long-latency reflexes ; Magnetic brain stimulation ; Sensory feedback
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Stimulation of cutaneous foot afferents has been shown to evoke a facilitation of the tibialis anterior (TA) EMG-activity at a latency of 70–95 ms in the early and middle swing phase of human walking. The present study investigated the underlying mechanism for this facilitation. In those subjects in whom it was possible to elicit a reflex during tonic dorsiflexion while seated (6 out of 17 tested), the facilitation in the TA EMG evoked by stimulation of the sural nerve (3 shocks, 3-ms interval, 2.0–2.5× perception threshold) was found to have the same latency in the swing phase of walking. The facilitation observed during tonic dorsiflexion has been suggested to be – at least partly – mediated by a transcortical pathway. To investigate whether a similar mechanism contributes to the facilitation observed during walking, magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (1.2× motor threshold) was applied in the early swing phase at different intervals in relation to the cutaneous stimulation in 17 subjects. In 13 of the subjects, the motor potentials evoked by the magnetic stimulation (MEPs) were more facilitated by prior sural-nerve stimulation (conditioning-test intervals of 50–80 ms) than the algebraic sum of the control MEP and the cutaneous facilitation in the EMG when evoked separately. In four of these subjects, a tibialis anterior H-reflex could also be evoked during walking. In none of the subjects was an increase of the H-reflex similar to that for the MEP observed. In five experiments on four subjects, MEPs evoked by magnetic and electrical cortical stimulation were compared. In four of these experiments, only the magnetically induced MEPs were facilitated by prior stimulation of the sural nerve. We suggest that a transcortical pathway may also contribute to late cutaneous reflexes during walking.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words H-reflex ; Motor units ; Motor evoked potentials ; Motoneuron recruitment ; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The responses of 34 extensor-carpi-radialis motor units to graded transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical stimulation of the radial nerve were investigated in six human subjects. Simultaneously with the recording of the single motor-unit discharges, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and H-reflexes evoked by the two types of stimulation were recorded by surface electrodes and expressed as a percentage of the maximal motor response (Mmax). Ten motor units were activated in the H-reflex when it was less than 5% of Mmax, but not in the MEP even when it was 15% of Mmax. The opposite was observed for three motor units. Eleven motor units were recruited by both stimuli, but with significantly different recruitment thresholds. Only ten motor units had a threshold similar to TMS and radial nerve stimulation. From these observations, we suggest that caution should be taken when making conclusions regarding motor cortical excitability based on changes in the size of MEPs, even when it is ensured that there are no similar changes in background EMG-activity or H-reflexes.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 92 (1989), S. 29-35 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A recently discovered human plasma protein, tetrancetin (TN), which has previously been demonstrated immunohistochemically within various endocrine tissues, was in this study identified in an additional number of epithelial and mesenchymal cells by two polyclonal antibodies and one monoclonal using the conventional immunoperoxidase staining technique and a modification of the CLONO-GLAD procedure. TN was found in endothelial and epithelial tissues, particularly in cells with a high turn-over or storage function such as gastric parietal and zymogenic cells absorptive surface epithelium of the small intestine, ducts of exocrine glands and pseudostratified respiratory epithelium. Also mesenchymal cells produced a TN positive staining reaction, which was most conspicious in mast cells, but also present in some lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, granulocytes, striated and smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of cultured human embryonal fibroblasts (WI-38) showed that the cells besides TN contain another protein with a molecular weight of 82 000. As this protein, however, reacted with our affinity purified antibodies it probably represents a precussor of TN or a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 60 000, which is covalently linked to TN. This and the fact that TN shows amino acid sequence homologiess to the carboxyterminal part of the asialo-glycoprotein receptor and a cartilage proteoglycan core protein as well a binding affinity to plasminogen points to TN as being part of a larger molecule, which possibly has been cleaved by proteolysis at the cellular site and then passed into the blood, where it polymerizes into a tetramer.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tetranectin (TN) is a human, plasminogen kringle 4 binding plasma protein with ubiquitous cellular distribution and lectin-like characteristics. By means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining technique a polyclonal and a monoclonal antibody were used to demonstrate TN within the intracellular as well as the extracellular compartment of invasive breast carcinoma. Whereas cell associated TN was universal showing only quantitative differences depending of the growth pattern of the tumor, 78 of 133 tumors displayed TN extracellularly as well. The occurrence of this stromal TN immunoreactivity was closely associated with desmoplasia, recognized morphologically by an increase in fibroblastic cells and immunohistochemically by an intense staining for the connective tissue glycoprotein fibronectin (FN). Benign breast tissue displayed a universal, intense cytoplasmic but no extracellular reaction for TN, with the exception of rare foci of granulation tissue and around dilated cysts. Functional studies have shown that human embryonal lung fibroblasts increase their release of TN to the growth medium upon stimulation. The presence of TN extracellularly within fibroblast-rich foci of desmoplasia (and granulation tissue) suggests that a similar increased release of the protein takes place in vivo during active states. Desmoplasia has been found to have a protective effect on tumor cell propagation and metastasis in a murine model. The molecular interactions, which are responsible for this effect, are undoubtedly complex. However, TN may, by its specific binding to kringle 4 of plasminogen and its high affinity for sulphated polysaccharides, add to the understanding of how plasminogen activation is modulated at the local extracellular level.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A monospecific antibody to a plasminogen Kringle 4-binding tetramer protein of human blood, tetranectin, was applied to various human endocrine tissues employing the peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining technique. Endocrine cells with a known protein or glycoprotein hormonal production such as chromophils (pituitary), follicular and parafollicular cells (thyroid), chief cells (parathyroid), hepatocytes (liver), islet cells (pancreas) and ganglion cells of the adrenal medulla displayed a convincing, positive staining reaction for tetranectin, which varied from cell to cell within the different tissues. The liver showed a distinct and universal reaction within almost all hepatocytes, thus raising suspicion of producing the bulk of tetranectin to the blood. Tetranectin has recently been characterized as a lectin-like protein with amino acid sequence homology to the core protein of a rat chondrosarcoma proteoglycan. Proteoglycans have been demonstrated in secretory granules of rat pituitary and pancreatic islet cells, where they probably serve as modulators in hormonal production. The granular, cytoplasmic immunohistochemical localization of tetranectin demonstrated in this study combined with the fact that tetranectin is known to attach to plasminogen and promote plasminogen activation catalysed by tissue plasminogen activator suggests that this protein might have a dual function, serving both as a regulator in the seretion of certain hormones and as a participant in the regulation of the limited proteolysis, which is considered important for the activation of prohormones.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eleven European isolates of Suid herpesvirus type 1 (SHV-1) were compared by restriction fragment pattern analyses and Southern blot hybridization using different genomic probes. The presence of strain discriminative 4 major genome types and several subtypes as well as the molecular distinctions between these were demonstrated. Evolutionary relationships between the different types are suggested on the basis of homologous restriction fragment length polymorphisms.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Examples are given of observations made with field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) which indicate that intergenomic recombination is a common phenomenon associated with the virus. This was further confirmed by experimental co-infection of a pig with 2 virus strains with different, stable and easily identifiable genomic markers, followed by natural transmission to a group of contact pigs. A variety of recombinants was subsequently isolated, while none of the parental strains were re-isolated from any of the pigs. It is suggested that co-invasion of cells and recombination between viral genomes play a role in the life cycle of the virus.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected from clinical outbreaks of Aujeszky's disease (AD) in Jutland in January-February, 1985, were compared by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analyses with older SHV-1 isolates from Jutland as well as with SHV-1 isolates from different parts of West Germany and Ireland. The RFP analysis indicated that the outbreaks were caused by SHV-1 isolates introduced from abroad.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used as a live vaccine in Poland, and the Hungarian isolates were related to the Bartha K-61 vaccine strain widely used in Hungary. Pigs experimentally infected with derivatives of BUK-TK-900 or BUK-TK-900 itself were found to develop gI-antibodies, while pigs infected with derivatives of Bartha K-61 showed a gI-negative response.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Purified DNA from 42 isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected during 1985 from clinical outbreaks of Aujezsky's disease on Danish farms was compared by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis. The BamHI generated RFPs were found to be distinguishable, thus confirming RFP analysis as a potential epidemiological tool. However, because of variations within labile genome regions of epidemiologically closely related isolates, it was concluded that comparisons of RFPs should be interpreted with great care and only on the basis of a comprehensive reference material. With this proviso, the changes in RFPs occurring during the spread of the infection might be useful markers in the evaluation of epidemiological relationships. A simple procedure for obtaining satisfactory amounts of purified SHV-1 DNA is described.
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