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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Chloroplast DNA ; Coffea ; Inheritance ; RFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract CpDNA variation among 52 tree samples belonging to 25 different taxa of Coffea and two species of Psilanthus was assessed by RFLP analysis on both the total chloroplast genome and the atpB-rbcL intergenic region. Twelve variable characters were distinguished allowing the identification of 12 different plastomes. The low sequence divergence observed might suggest that Coffea is a young genus. The results were in contradiction with the present classification into two genera. Additionally, cpDNA inheritance was studied in interspecific hybrids between C. arabica and C. canephora, and in an intraspecific progeny of C. canephora, using PCR-based markers. Both studies showed exclusively maternal inheritance of cpDNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Coffea ; Coffee-tree ; Internal transcribed spacer region ; Nuclear ribosomal DNA ; Molecular phylogeny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Phylogenetic relationships of Coffea species were estimated from the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS 2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The ITS 2 region of 37 accessions belonging to 26 Coffea taxa and to three Psilanthus species was directly sequenced from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA fragments. The level of variation was high enough to make the ITS 2 a useful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, an unusual level of intraspecific variation was observed leading to some difficulty in interpreting rDNA sequence divergences. Sequences were analysed using Wagner parsimony as well as the neighbour-joining distance method. Coffea taxa were divided into several major groups which present a strong geographical correspondence (i.e. Madagascar, East Africa, Central Africa and West Africa). This organisation is well supported by cytogenetic evidence. On the other hand, the results were in contradiction with the present classification of coffee-tree taxa into two genera, namely Coffea and Psilanthus. Furthermore, additivity of parental rDNA types was not observed in the allotetraploid species C. arabica.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Chloroplast DNA ; Coffea ; Inheritance ; RFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract CpDNA variation among 52 tree samples belonging to 25 different taxa of Coffea and two species of Psilanthus was assessed by RFLP analysis on both the total chloroplast genome and the atpB-rbcL intergenic region. Twelve variable characters were distinguished allowing the identification of 12 different plastomes. The low sequence divergence observed might suggest that Coffea is a young genus. The results were in contradiction with the present classification into two genera. Additionally, cpDNA inheritance was studied in interspecific hybrids between C. arabica and C. canephora, and in an intraspecific progeny of C. canephora, using PCR-based markers. Both studies showed exclusively maternal inheritance of cpDNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Africa ; Amphidiploidy ; Coffee tree ; Molecular cytogenetics ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were used in combination with genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) to investigate the origin of the allotetraploid species Coffea arabica (2n = 44). By comparing the RFLP patterns of potential diploid progenitor species with those of C. arabica, the sources of the two sets of chromosomes, or genomes, combined in C. arabica were identified. The genome organisation of C. arabica was confirmed by GISH using simultaneously labelled total genomic DNA from the two putative genome donor species as probes. These results clearly suggest that C. arabica is an amphidiploid formed by hybridisation between C. eugenioides and C. canephora, or ecotypes related to these diploid species. Our results also indicate low divergence between the two constituent genomes of C. arabica and those of its progenitor species, suggesting that the speciation of C. arabica took place relatively recently. Precise localisation in Central Africa of the site of the speciation of C. arabica, based on the present distribution of the coffee species, appears difficult, since the constitution and extent of tropical forest has varied considerably during the late Quaternary period.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Coffea arabica ; Introgression ; Genetic diversity ; Alien gene transfer ; AFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Nineteen arabica coffee introgression lines (BC1F4) and two accessions derived from a spontaneous interspecific cross (i.e. Timor Hybrid) between Coffea arabica (2n=4x=44) and C. canephora (2n=2x=22) were analysed for the introgression of C. canephora genetic material. The Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes were evaluated by AFLP, using 42 different primer combinations, and compared to 23 accessions of C. arabica and 8 accessions of C. canephora. A total of 1062 polymorphic fragments were scored among the 52 accessions analysed. One hundred and seventy-eight markers consisting of 109 additional bands (i.e. introgressed markers) and 69 missing bands distinguished the group composed of the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes from the accessions of C. arabica. AFLP therefore seemed to be an extremely efficient technique for DNA marker generation in coffee as well as for the detection of introgression in C. arabica. The genetic diversity observed in the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes appeared to be approximately double that in C. arabica. Although representing only a small proportion of the genetic diversity available in C. canephora, the Timor Hybrid obviously constitutes a considerable source of genetic diversity for arabica breeding. Analysis of genetic relationships among the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes suggested that introgression was not restricted to chromosome substitution but also involved chromosome recombinations. Furthermore, the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes varied considerably in the number of AFLP markers attributable to introgression. In this way, the introgressed markers identified in the analysed arabica coffee introgressed genotypes were estimated to represent from 9% to 29% of the C. canephora genome. Nevertheless, the amount of alien genetic material in the introgression arabica lines remains substantial and should justify the development of adapted breeding strategies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9508
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The imager of the infrared satellite ISO will allow spectral imaging under very low flux conditions in the two to-eighteen-microns range, close to the fundamental limit of the zodiacal background photon noise. To optimize the performance of the imager, we must use an internal calibration device, mainly to track changes in the responsivity of the pixels of the detectors arrays, the limit of detection greatly depending upon the quality of the flat field corrections in certain cases. The first section introduces ISO and its infrared imager and emphasizes the necessity of in-flight calibration. The following chapter presents the specifications for the internal calibration device. The chosen design for the flight model which consists of an infrared emitter and two integrating spheres, is presented in the third chapter. The last part describes the cryogenic bench dedicated to relative photometric tests, the absolute calibration is made in the camera. Endly we present the results obtained with this facility and final tests to achieve the qualification of the device.
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