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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hierarchical processing ; Sensory cortex ; Reciprocal connections ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prevalence of reciprocal connections in the cerebral cortex indicates that they play a fundamental role in the processing of sensory information. We have investigated the laminar termination patterns of such paired connections between different visual cortical areas of the rat, and have found two basic projection types: one which includes layer 4 and a second which includes layer 1 and avoids layer 4. The projections from primary visual cortex (area 17) to extrastriate visual cortical targets in the cytoarchitectonical areas 18a and 18b, and from 18a to a site in 18b, are of the first type. In contrast, the return projections from 18a and 18b to area 17 and from 18b to 18a, are of the second type. Thus each pair of connections has one element of each type, giving every circuit a nearly identical asymmetric structure. These laminar patterns resemble those of forward and feedback connections in primate cortex, indicating that cortico-cortical connectivity patterns are highly conserved through evolution, and that, as in monkeys, these connections define a hierarchical organization of areas in rat visual cortex.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: p 〈 0.003). The adjunct group had more preoperative renal insufficiency (p 〈 0.05), an established risk factor for neurologic deficit (odds ratio = 2.2 in published studies). All other risk factors for neurologic deficit occurred with comparable frequency in both groups. We conclude that the introduction of adjuncts has dramatically reduced the neurologic risk associated with type I thoracoabdominal or total descending thoracic aortic repair. Previously considered high risk for neurologic complications, these aneurysms can now be reclassified as low risk in surgery accompanied by adjuncts. Future investigations will focus on type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm as the major source of neurologic morbidity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: case–control studies ; colorectal neoplasms ; family characteristics ; NSAIDs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background:We undertook the present analyses to determine whether family history of colorectal cancer in a parent or sibling modifies the inverse association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use with colorectal cancer risk. Methods:We used data from two case–control studies of colorectal cancer. The hospital-based Case Control Surveillance Study included 1526 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 4192 cancer controls and 6036 noncancer controls. A population-based study conducted in Massachusetts enrolled 1201 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 1201 community controls. Data on NSAID use and risk factors for colorectal cancer were collected by interview. Results:In both studies there was a reduction in the odds ratios among subjects who used NSAIDs regularly continuing into the previous year, regardless of family history. In the Case–Control Surveillance data, the odds ratio was 0.4 (95% CI 0.2–0.9) among subjects with a family history and 0.5 (95% CI 0.4–0.7) among subjects without a family history. The comparable odds ratios in the Massachusetts data were 0.5 (95% CI 0.3–0.9) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6–0.9). Conclusions:These data indicate that regular continuing NSAID use is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer among persons with a family history of the disease, as well as those without such a history.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: antidepressants ; benzodiazepines ; ovarian cancer ; phenothiazines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives:An association of increased risk of ovarian cancer with use of antidepressants or benzodiazepine tranquilizers has been reported from a case–control study. We assessed the association between ovarian cancer risk and the use of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), phenothiazine antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, in data from the Case–Control Surveillance Study. Methods:From 1976 through 1998, data were collected from hospital patients in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore based on demographic factors, reproductive and medical history, and medication use. In the present analyses, cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 748) were compared with cancer controls (n = 1496) and noncancer controls admitted for trauma and acute infection (n = 1496). We estimated Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios adjusted for age, study center, and year of interview. Results:Odds ratios for regular use (at least 4 days/week for at least 1 month) were compatible with 1.0 for every drug class. For tricyclics and benzodiazepines the upper 95% confidence limits were less than 1.6. For phenothiazines the upper limit was 2.6 with cancer controls and 1.4 with noncancer controls. Only five cases used SSRIs, yielding unstable results. Odds ratios were not increased among women who had used any drug class for at least 5 years, nor among women who had first used them 10 or more years previously. Conclusions:These data do not support an association between regular use of any of the drugs under study with ovarian cancer risk.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; physical activity ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have used data from a large population-based case-control study inthe United States to evaluate the effect of occupational physical activity onbreast cancer risk. Women diagnosed with breast cancer identified from fourstate cancer registries, and controls randomly selected from lists oflicensed drivers or Medicare beneficiaries, were interviewed by telephone forinformation on usual occupation and other factors. We classified usualoccupation into one of four categories of physical activity. After excludingsubjects for whom a strength rating could not be assigned, we had a finalsample size of 4,863 cases and 6,783 controls. Using conditional logisticregression models, we calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 percentconfidence intervals (CI) for occupations having light, medium, and heavyactivity compared with sedentary ones. Women with heavy-activity occupationshad a lower risk of breast cancer than women with sedentary jobs (OR = 0.82,CI = 0.63-1.08), as di d women with jobs with medium activity (OR = 0.86, CI= 0.77-0.97) or light activity (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.84-1.01). There was asignificant decreasing trend in the ORs from sedentary to heavy work (P =0.007). Although limited by exposure misclassification, these data areconsistent with the hypothesis that physical activity reduces the risk ofbreast cancer.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Lewis lung carcinoma ; TGFβ ; Bone marrow ; Immunosuppressor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Normal bone marrow cells become immunosuppressive when cultured with supernatants of metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-LN7) cells. The suppressorinducing activities in the LLC-LN7 supernatants are interleukin-3 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor. In the present study, the mechanisms by which these induced suppressor cells (LLCsup-BM) mediate their immunosuppression were investigated. The suppression by LLCsup-BM of splenic concanavalin CA blastogenesis was not dependent on cell contact since immunosuppression occurred regardless of whether the LLCsup-BM were separated from the responder spleen cells by a permeable membrane or if the LLCsup-BM were cocultured with the spleen cells. Culture supernatants of LLCsup-BM also inhibited T cell blastogenesis, being more suppressive than were supernatants of control bone marrow cells, which had been precultured with medium. The suppression by the soluble inhibitors elaborated from the LLCsup-BM was not restricted to the inhibition of T cell function as the supernatants also inhibited the natural killer activity of normal spleen cells. Studies to determine the identity of the suppressive activity produced by the LLCsup-BM showed increased levels of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in their supernatants. Immunosuppressive bone marrow and spleen cells obtained from mice bearing metastatic LLC-LN7 tumors also secreted more TGFβ than did the cells obtained from normal mice. When anti-TGFβ antibodies were added to the LLCsup-BM supernatants, the suppressive activity was diminished. These results suggest that the LLCsup-BM mediate at least part of their immunosuppression through production of TGFβ.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Physostigmine ; Memory tests ; Normal volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of an intraveneous infusion of physostigmine (0.94 mg infused over 60 min) on performance in memory tests were studied in 12 young subjects. Drug effects were modest and are discussed in relation to results of physostigmine studies in Alzheimer patients.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychiatric quarterly 32 (1958), S. 403-404 
    ISSN: 1573-6709
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Styrene ; oxidation ; silent discharge ; plasma ; dielectric barrier
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract A silent discharge plasma reactor has been developed to study the oxidation of styrene vapor in argon/oxygen mixtures. A number of analytical techniques were employed to determine the destruction efficiency and to characterize the intermediate products. The destruction efficiency was measured as a function of initial styrene concentration, temperature, and energy density of the plasma. The formation of solid products was observed in most experiments. At low temperature (100°C), the solid deposit was polymeric in nature, while at high temperature (300°C) the solid appeared to be amorphous carbon. A combination of high temperature and high energy density resulted in high destruction efficiency and minimal production of solid films. The destruction efficiency vs. energy density is shown to be more complex than a simple model predicting exponential behavior. Several reasons for the discrepancy are suggested. The “e-folding” energy density for the destruction of styrene is compared to literature values for other organic compounds, measured using similar types of plasma reactors.
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