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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: p-Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid ; clofibrate ; steady-state plasma concentrations ; bioavailability ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma concentrations and bioavailability of clofibrinic acid have been estimated under conditions approaching the steady-state during a ten-day period of administration as clofibrate or as a calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination (1:1 w/w) at a dosage interval of 12 h. Formulation — related differences in bioavailability were not significant, and the 95% confidence limits of these differences were within −2% to +8% of the mean for the reference formulation of clofibrate. The mean steadystate plasma concentrations of clofibrinic acid measured on the tenth day of dosing were 116 µg/ml±22 S.D. and 119 µg/ml±23 S.D. after administration of 885 mg as clofibrate and the calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination respectively. The peaks of mean plasma concentrations were 70 µg/ml±15 S.D., 119 µg/ml±32 S.D. and 131 µg/ml±26 S.D. on the first, fifth and tenth day of dosing with clofibrate, and 62 µg/ml±13 S.D., 127 µg/ml±S.D. and 143 µg/ml±25 S.D. on the corresponding days of dosing with the calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination. After the last dose on the tenth day of dosing, the mean apparent half-lives of elimination of clofibrinic acid from plasma were 24.2 h±4.4 S.D. and 25.5 h±3.2 S.D. after administration of clofibrate and the calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination respectively.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Ximoprofen ; pharmacokinetics ; normal subjects ; hepatic disease ; renal disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of ximoprofen, a potent new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been investigated in normal healthy subjects and in patients with hepatic or renal disease. After intravenous infusion of 22.8 mg to healthy subjects, plasma ximoprofen concentrations declined in a polyexponential manner with a terminal phase half-life of 1.9 h. The systemic clearance of ximoprofen was 115 ml·min−1 and the volumes of distribution were 18.0 l Vz and 13.8 l Vss. Ximoprofen was 80–90% bound to plasma proteins. The systemic availabilities (f) of orally and rectally administered doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen were 98% and 56% respectively and, in the case of the rectal dose, absorption appeared to be prolonged leading to “flip-flop” kinetics. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with hepatic disease, half-life (2.2 h), peak plasma concentrations (1.55 μg·ml−1 cf 1.04 μg·ml−1 in healthy subjects) and areas under the curve (6.12 μg·h·ml−1 cf 3.54 μg·h·ml−1 in healthy subjects) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with renal disease, pharmacokinetic parameters of half-life (4.0 h), mean residence time (6.0 h) and area under the curve (9.2 μg·h·ml−1) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between patients having differing degrees of renal disease. These data nevertheless suggest that accumulation of ximoprofen in hepatic or renal disease would be of slight or negligible clinical relevance and that no alteration of the dose regimen (up to 15 mg twice daily) may be required when ximoprofen is administered in these disease states.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antidepressant ; PK 5078 ; serotonin ; platelet 5-HT uptake ; platelet 5-HT content ; plasma 5-HT level ; side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary PK 5078 is a recently developed compound which inhibits specifically the neuronal reuptake of serotonin and enhance its release. PK 5078 was administered to healthy male volunteers in single and multiple oral doses and the effects on platelet serotonin uptake and content were examined. A significant dose-related inhibition of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets was observed following single oral doses of PK 5078 (25–150 mg), with maximal inhibition at 75 mg. This was evident 2 h after dosing and was still marked after 10 h. Plasma collected from the subjects after dosing also had a considerable dose-related effect on the uptake of 3H-serotonin by untreated platelets. No significant alteration in platelet serotonin content was observed after single doses of PK 5078. When PK 5078 (50 mg) was administered twice daily for 9 days there was a rapid and sustained reduction in 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets, which returned to pretreatment levels 2 days after discontinuation of the drug. A similar response was observed when plasma from these subjects was incubated with untreated platelets. The rate of depletion of endogenous platelet serotonin was much slower with minimum levels being attained on the morning after the final dose. The recovery following withdrawal was also slow with serotonin levels approaching pre-dose values 14 days after the final dose of PK 5078.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: meclonazepam ; schistosomicide ; performance ; mood ; healthy male volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The novel benzodiazepine derivative, meclonazepam (3-methylclonazepam) has been found to be orally effective at high doses against all stages of schistosomiasis. Animals studies have shown it to have a high therapeutic index and a profile of behavioural activity typical of the benzodiazepines. The effects of single oral doses of meclonazepam, 1, 2 and 4 mg on central arousal, psychomotor performance and subjective mood were studied in two double-blind placebo controlled studies in healthy volunteers. In doses exceeding 1 mg, meclonazepam caused marked dose-related impairment in cognitive and psychomotor functions as well as shifts in mood reflecting sedation and ataxia. These effects were most prominent in the first 3 h after administration, with moderate sedation still present 6 h after the 4 mg dose. The implications of these findings for the use of benzodiazepine agents in the treatment of schistosomiasis are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: piroxicam ; pharmacokinetics ; geriatrics ; renal insufficiency ; drug safety ; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ; osteoarthritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Age-dependent changes in pharmacokinetics are considered a possible factor contributing to a higher risk of side-effects from drug treatment in the elderly. However, very little is known about the kinetics and metabolism of most NSAI agents in geriatric subjects. In a prospective age-comparison study, the single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of piroxicam 20 mg once daily were determined in 44 subjects ranging in age from 30 to 80 years. Plasma concentrations, elimination half-life, AUC, and volume of distribution were not influenced by age or sex and were in agreement with previously reported results in young adults. Pharmacokinetic parameters in 18 patients with evidence of mild or moderate renal impairment at study entry were not different from those in patients without impairment. Based on this and other studies, elderly patients receiving the recommended dose of piroxicam are not exposed to undue risk related to pharmacokinetic considerations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: benzodiazepines ; Ro 15-1788 ; vital functions ; adverse reactions ; facial erythema ; dizziness ; tolerance ; reversal of sedation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: torasemide ; tolerance ; diuretic ; urine volume ; electrolytes ; adverse effects ; oral route ; intravenous route ; side-effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The tolerance and diuretic properties of torasemide after oral or intravenous administration to healthy volunteers were studied. Six groups, each of 6 subjects, were given single rising oral doses ranging from 10 to 100 mg; 8 subjects received ascending i.v. doses on alternate days, ranging from 2.5 to 80 mg. At the highest oral doses investigated (80 mg and 100 mg) a number of volunteers complained of cramps in the knees, calves and feet. These symptoms were generally of short duration. Similar effects were not encountered during the intravenous study. There were no significant changes in ECG. Some significant drug-related changes were encountered in the within-study biochemistry and haematology assessments. Torasemide proved to be a potent diuretic following oral administration at all the doses investigated and following intravenous administration at all doses except 2.5 mg. A linear relationship existed between the urine output and the logarithm of the dose, and both sodium and chloride excretion were linearly correlated with urine volume. The rate of potassium excretion was markedly lower than that of sodium and chloride and was linearly correlated with the logarithm of the urine volume. Torasemide was well tolerated from all perspectives studied. It showed a potent diuretic property, and was equally effective by the oral and intravenous routes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Chick blastoderm serum proteins ; Extraembryonic endoderm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The pattern of serum protein synthesis and secretion in aggregates of extraembryonic endoderm cells (EEC) from the area opaca of primitive streak chick embryos was studied. EEC aggregates were cultured for various time intervals and serum proteins were detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography. Serum proteins were identified based on their comigration with reference proteins from 4 day chick embryo serum and with reference proteins from egg white albumen and chicken serum. A number of serum proteins were detected in EEC aggregates including: two variants of immunoglobulin (IgG), four variants of transferrin, a protein with a molecular weight of 66 500 which may correspond to α globulins, prealbumin, and a protein with a molecular weight of 38 600 (serum protein 11) which remains unidentified. These proteins were also detected in the culture medium. The banding profiles of EEC extracts and culture medium were compared over various time intervals of culture (6, 18 and 30 h). The IgGs, transforms and serum protein 11 decreased in concentration in EEC extracts over the culture interval. These proteins as well as prealbumin, were detected in the culture medium. A number of proteins were synthesized by EEC, as determined by radiolabelled amino acid incorporation. All of the labelled serum proteins were detected in the culture medium, not in EEC extracts. These results suggest that serum proteins are synthesized by EEC then rapidly released into the medium. Labelled serum proteins detected in the culture medium include prealbumin and an unidentified serum protein (serum protein 14) which migrates with the tracking dye, both synthesized early in culture (6 h), and transferrin which was synthesized later (18 h) during culture.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Nach i. v. Verabreichung von Thyrotrophin-releasing Hormonen an Versuchspersonen ergibt sich eine biphasische Kurve für den Abfall der Tritiumaktivität im Plasma mit einer Exkretions-Halbwertszeit von 3 h.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-8744
    Keywords: flunitrazepam ; single dose ; multiple dose ; hypnotic ; two-compartment model ; benzodiazepine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Healthy human subjects received single and multiple oral doses of flunitrazepam. Absorption and disposition were first order and reproducible from administration to administration. The oral doses were virtually completely available to the liver, and elimination from the body occurred entirely via metabolism. Assuming the liver to be the sole eliminating organ, hepatic blood clearance and extraction ratio were approximately 0.235 liter/hr/kg and 0.154, respectively. Steady-state blood volume of distribution averaged 3.76 liters/kg in the single-dose studies. Terminal exponential half-lives from the single- and multiple-dose studies (different subjects) averaged 13.5 and 19.2 hr, respectively, these differences were not due to clearance changes but were entirely attributable to variations in volumes of distribution.
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