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  • Springer  (392)
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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurology ; Physical Therapy ; Rehabilitation ; Medicine & Public Health ; Neurology ; Rehabilitation Medicine ; Physiotherapy ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    Edition: 2012.
    ISBN: 9781447122777
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  • 2
    Call number: QZ365WI200:94
    Pages: vi, 267 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9783319435787
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    QZ365WI200:94 available
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6714
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Compliance with wearing removable appliances cannot be determined directly from progress noted in the course of treatment. The orthodontist’s judgement is influenced by many and varied observations and the evidence they yiel is often unclear. We studied 104 orthodontic patients aged nine to 16 years using as data treatment records, provider and patient questionnaires, and oral hygiene indexes. In addition theLuescher psychological color test was administered to a subgroup and the duration of compliance wear was objectively measured. We found little consistency among different compliance indicators. Studying the patient’s keeping of appointments, his oral hygiene habits, and appliance maintenance did not result in general conclusions pertaining to the patient’s compliance with wearing the appliance. Only over a longer period it is possible to determination clinical observation the patient’s cooperation in his treatment. More promising on the other hand for patient compliance behavior is the combination of information obtained clinically with the through psychological tests.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das Trageverhalten bei herausnehmbaren Geräten läßt sich nicht jederzeit linear aus dem Behandlungsfortschrift erschließen. In das Urteil des Kieferorthopäden über die Compliance fließen vielfältige Beobachtungen ein, deren Aussagekraft noch unklar ist. Bei 104 Patienten zwischen neun und 16 Jahren wurden multiple Compliancekriterien aus Behandlungsunterlagen, Behandler- und Patientenbefragung und Mundhygieneindizes erhoben. Bei einem Teil der Patienten wurden außerdem der psychologische Farbtest nachLüscher durchgeführt und die Tragedauer der Geräte objektiv gemessen. Zwischen den einzelnen Compliancekriterien bestaht werig Konsistenz. Termineinhaltung, Gerätepflege und Mundhygiene des Patienten gestatten im allgemeimm I eine Rückschlüsse auf sein Trageverhalten. Auch die klinische Einschätzung spiegelt nur längertestig. Compliancekriterienster des Patienten korrekt wider. Die Kombination klinischer Informationen mit psychological therapedea verspricht dagegen eine verbesserte Einschätzung des Trageverhaltens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibular ; Posture ; Head stabilization ; Somatosensory ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relative contribution of vestibular and somatosensory information to triggering postural responses to external body displacements may depend on the task and on the availability of sensory information in each system. To separate the contribution of vestibular and neck mechanisms to the stabilization of upright stance from that of lower body somatosensory mechanisms, responses to displacements of the head alone were compared with responses to displacements of the head and body, in both healthy subjects and in patients with profound bilateral vestibular loss. Head displacements were induced by translating two 1-kg weights suspended on either side of the head at the level of the mastoid bone, and body displacements were induced translating the support surface. Head displacements resulted in maximum forward and backward head accelerations similar to those resulting from body displacements, but were not accompanied by significant center of body mass, ankle, knee, or hip motions. We tested the effect of disrupting somatosensory information from the legs on postural responses to head or body displacements by sway-referencing the support surface. The subjects' eyes were closed during all testing to eliminate the effects of vision. Results showed that head displacements alone can trigger medium latency (48–84 ms) responses in the same leg and trunk muscles as body displacements. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that vestibular signals alone normally trigger directionally specific postural responses to support surface translations in standing humans because: (1) initial head accelerations resulting from body and head displacements were in opposite directions, but were associated with activation of the same leg and trunk postural muscles; (2) muscle responses to displacements of the head alone were only one third of the amplitude of responses to body displacements with equivalent maximum head accelerations; and (3) patients with profound bilateral vestibular loss showed patterns and latencies of leg and trunk muscle responses to body displacements similar to those of healthy subjects. Altering somatosensory information, by sway-referencing the support surface, increased the amplitude of ankle muscle activation to head displacements and reduced the amplitude of ankle muscle activation to body displacements, suggesting context-specific reweighting of vestibular and somatosensory inputs for posture. In contrast to responses to body displacements, responses to direct head displacements appear to depend upon a vestibulospinal trigger, since trunk and leg muscle responses to head displacements were absent in patients who had lost vestibular function as adults. Patients who lost vestibular function as infants, however, had near normal trunk and leg response to head displacements, suggesting a substitution of upper trunk and neck somatosensory inputs for missing vestibular inputs during development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Locomotion ; Spinal man ; Spinal cord lesion ; Electromyographic muscle activity (EMG)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recent studies have demonstrated that coordinated stepping movements can be induced in patients with complete para-/tetraplegia, when they were standing on a moving treadmill with their body weight partially unloaded and external assistance. The aim of this study was to determine which part of the spinal cord generated the locomotor pattern. In patients with complete paraplegia due to lesions at different levels of the spinal cord, the locomotor pattern was compared with that of healthy subjects. Any similarities in electromyographic (EMG) activity of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles between the patients and healthy subjects were reflected by the analysis of the variation ratio and amplitudes of the EMG activity. It was found that the higher the level of spinal cord lesion the more ”normal” was the locomotor pattern. This suggests that neuronal circuits underlying locomotor ”pattern generation” in man are not restricted to any specific level(s) of the spinal cord, but that an intricate neuronal network contributing to bipedal locomotion extends from thoracolumbal to cervical levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Split-belt locomotion ; Interlimb coordination ; Adaptation ; Motor learning ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Split-belt locomotion (i.e., walking with unequal leg speeds) requires a rapid adaptation of biome-chanical parameters and therefore of leg muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. This adaptational process during the first strides of asymmetric gait as well as learning effects induced by repetition were studied in 11 healthy volunteers. Subjects were switched from slow (0.5 m/s) symmetric gait to split-belt locomotion with speeds of 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s, respectively. All subjects were observed to adapt in a similar way: (1) during the first trial, adaptation required about 12–15 strides. This was achieved by an increase in stride cycle duration, i.e., an increase in swing duration on the fast side and an increase in support duration on the slow side. (2) Adaptation of leg extensor and flexor EMG activity paralleled the changes of biomechanical parameters. During the first strides, muscle activity was enhanced with no increase in coactivity of antagonistic leg muscles. (3) A motor learning effect was seen when the same paradigm was repeated a few minutes later — interrupted by symmetric locomotion — as adaptation to the split-belt speeds was achieved within 1–3 strides. (4) This short-time learning effect did not occur in the “mirror” condition when the slow and fast sides were inverted. In this case adaptation again required 12–15 strides. A close link between central and proprioceptive mechanisms of interlimb coordination is suggested to underlie the adaptational processes during split-belt conditions. It can be assumed that, as in quadrupedal locomotion of the cat, human bipedal locomotion involves separate locomotor generators to provide the flexibility demanded. The present results suggest that side-specific proprioceptive information regarding the dynamics of the movement is necessary to adjust the centrally generated locomotor activity for both legs to the actual needs for controlled locomotion. Although the required pattern is quickly learned, this learning effect cannot be transferred to the contralateral side.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibular postural control ; Ischemic blocking ; Spindle afferents ; Tabes dorsalis ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary After minimizing proprioceptive input from the legs by ischemia without degradation of muscle force and excluding visual stabilization by eye closure, a characteristic anterior-posterior postural sway around 1 Hz was observed in three normal subjects. This is similar to the instability seen in two tabes dorsalis patients. From the spectral analysis of head and hip movements, displacements of the center of force and of ankle angle as well as from EMG recordings of the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscle it is concluded that the oscillations around 1 Hz are due to the long latency and high threshold of vestibularly induced leg muscle discharges (200–300 ms) arriving in the counterbalancing phase of the trunk, which causes an overshoot in body sway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Human balancing ; Spinal stretch reflex ; Leg muscle EMG ; Proprioceptive posture control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary While subjects balanced on a seesaw consisting of a platform with a curved base, the antero-posterior sway of head and body as well as changes in the angle of the ankle joint were recorded and analysed for their frequency power spectrum. The EMG of leg muscles and the position of the resultant force exerted by the seesaw on a force-measuring platform were simultaneously registered and analysed. Balancing oscillations of 4–5 Hz were observed under this condition. They were accompanied by short, reciprocally organized bursts of EMG activity in the leg muscles. When stimulating the tibialis nerves to produce a displacement, the delay until the counterbalancing EMG activity started (about 40 ms) was in the time range of a fast-conducting segmental reflex. After partial ischaemic blocking of group I afferents from the leg muscles or fixation of the ankle joints, the predominant sway frequency was lacking, bursts of EMG activity became longer and stronger, and body balance was more unstable. Altering the height of the seesaw showed that a threshold change in the ankle angle was the determining factor in the production of spinal stretch reflex activity for fast regulation of balance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 47 (1982), S. 172-176 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spinal EMG coordination ; EMG in balancing ; Leg muscle activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary While subjects were standing and balancing on two separate seesaws, the EMG of the leg muscles and the positions of the two seesaws were recorded. The spontaneous balancing movements with predominant oscillations of 4–5 Hz, and the accompanying bursts of EMG activity in the leg muscles occurred quite symmetrically on the two sides. After a displacement, induced either by stimulating the tibial nerves, or by a brisk anterior tilt of one seesaw, the EMG responses of the tibialis anterior muscles started with the same latency (about 50 ms) on both sides, and with similar amplitudes, even when only one side was displaced. It is concluded that this symmetrical leg muscle activation is mediated by a spinal coordinating mechanism the function of which depends on the actual motor task.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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