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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract MRP8 and MRP14 are members of the S-100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins and are expressed by granulocytes and monocytes. Members of this family have been described to be involved in membrane and cytoskeleton interactions; we therefore studied the subcellular distribution of MRP8/MRP14 in cultured human monocytes at the ultrastructural level. Monospecific rabbit antisera against MRP8 and MRP14 and a monoclonal antibody (moAb 27E10), which exclusively recognizes the MRP8/MRP14 heterodimer but not the monomers, were used in both immunoperoxidase/preembedding-and immunogold/cryotechniques. Comparing non-stimulated monocytes with Ca2+ ionophore A23187-treated cells, we could demonstrate that MRP8 and MRP14 associate with membrane and cytoskeletal structures in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Employing moAb 27E10, MRP8/MRP14 complexes were shown to be translocated to these cellular components. In addition, immunogold double-labelling experiments revealed a clear co-localization of MRP8/MRP14 complexes with the type III intermediate filament vimentin. Analysis of immunogold-labelled cryosections of renal allografts after acute vascular rejection demonstrated that a subpopulation of infiltrating macrophages showed a similar association of MRP8/MRP14 to the cytoskeleton in situ; this finding emphasizes the in vivo relevance of our observations. We conclude that Ca2+-dependent translocation of MRP8/MRP14 occurs to distinct subcellular components suggesting a role of these proteins for the modulation of cytoskeletal and membrane interactions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1173
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Lineare IgA-Dermatose ; Bullöses Pemphigoid ; Basalmembran ; Bullöse Autoimmundermatosen ; Autoantikörper ; Keywords Linear IgA disease ; Bullous pemphigoid ; Basement membrane ; Autoimmune blistering diseases ; Autoantibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract A 29-year-old female patient with an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease had linear deposits of both IgA and IgG at the basement membrane zone. Clinically, the patient presented with tense blisters on the face, trunk, extremities and oral mucosa. Histologically, we found a subepidermal blister formation and a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear deposits of IgA along the basement membrane zone, as well as linear deposits of IgG and C3 as typically found in bullous pemphigoid. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated circulating IgA and IgG autoantibodies. This case extends previous reports on a subgroup of patients with subepidermal blistering diseases characterized by the presence of both IgA and IgG anti-basement membrane antibodies. These patients reveal clinical, histological and immunopathological features of linear IgA disease and bullous pemphigoid.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Wir berichten über eine 29jährige Patientin mit einer subepidermal blasenbildenden Autoimmundermatose, die durch lineare Ablagerungen von IgA- und IgG-Antikörpern an der dermoepidermalen Junktionszone gekennzeichnet ist. Klinisch fanden sich pralle Bläschen im Gesicht, am Stamm, an den Extremitäten und an der Mundschleimhaut. Histologisch sahen wir eine subepidermale Blasenbildung und ein neutrophilenreiches Entzündungsinfiltrat. Mittels direkter Immunfluoreszenz fanden sich in der Haut der Patientin lineare IgA-Ablagerungen an der Basalmembranzone. Ungewöhnlich war jedoch der gleichzeitige Nachweis von linearen IgG- und C3-Ablagerungen, die typischerweise beim bullösen Pemphigoid vorkommen. Auch im Serum der Patientin fanden sich Autoantikörper sowohl der IgA- als auch der IgG-Klasse. Der Fall dieser Patientin bestätigt frühere Berichte, daß es bei den subepidermal blasenbildenden Autoimmundermatosen eine Untergruppe von Patienten mit gleichzeitigem Nachweis von IgA- und IgG-Antikörpern gibt, bei denen sich klinische, histologische und immunpathologische Merkmale von linearer IgA-Dermatose und bullösem Pemphigoid überlappen.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Homocysteine ; Atherosclerosis ; Redox thiol status ; Endothelium ; Nuclear factor κB ; Protein folding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Vascular disease associated with increased blood concentrations of homocysteine has been known for many years. However, the pathobiochemical mechanisms leading to vasculopathy are still unknown. Several attempts have been made to establish in vitro model systems for the evaluation of homocysteine specific effects in cultured cells. It was concluded from these experiments, that hyperhomocysteinemia has to be considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis exerting its effects mainly by mechanisms involving oxidative damage. Here, we summarize the homocysteine induced cellular effects which may be due to alterations of the redox thiol status. Effects specific for homocysteine are demonstrated working on different levels of cellular processes involving protein folding and regulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-kB) controlled gene transcription, the latter opening a new perspective for a novel pathway by which homocysteine might enhance chronic inflammation of the endothelium and possibly contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Inflammation ; Macrophages ; Endothelium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on leukocyte infiltration during allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mice were studied. Concomitant topical application of SP or CGRP with the allergen oxazolone resulted in enhanced leukocyte recruitment at the sites of challenge. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the numbers of T-helper (L3T4+) and cytotoxic (Lyt-2) lymphocytes and infiltrating macrophages (BM8+) were increased. In addition, ICAM-1 and MHC class II molecule expression by these cells was enhanced after neuropeptide application. Analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP and CGRP in nerve fibres during the course of ACD. Flow cytometry studies showed that SP and CGRP did not upregulate expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by murine endothelial cell lines in vitro. This suggests that increased infiltration of leukocytes during ACD is not a consequence of direct neuropeptide-promoted upregulation of endothelial adhesion molecules in vivo. In conclusion, our observations provide evidence for a modulatory role of neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of ACD.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Irritant contact dermatitis ; Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) ; Croton oil ; Ear swelling response
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Irritant contact dermatitis to croton oil in BALB/cByJ, C57Bl/6J and six recombinant inbred CxB strains of mice was investigated in relation to variations in endothelial migration inhibitory factor (MIF) reactivity. MIF has been shown to be a mediator of cellular immunity and operates as a differentiation signal inducing an inflammatory type of macrophage. The intensity of the ear swelling response reached a maximum 8 h after induction of contact dermatitis, with highest values in BALB/cByJ and CxB4/ByAH mice and weak reactions in CxB2/ByAE, CxB7/ByAK, C57Bl/6J and CxB1/ByAD mice. After the same time period (8 h) cryostat sections were immunostained for capillary endothelium expressing MIF. The most pronounced MIF expression was observed in BALB/ cByJ mice, and CxB4/ByAH mice showed intermediate reactions and the other strains weak reactions. Endothelial MIF expression correlated well with the intensity of ear swelling (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.82). Patterns of endothelial MIF expression in recombinant inbred strains suggest that endothelial MIF expression is not under the control of a single gene. Our data support the hypothesis that endothelial MIF expression plays a prominent role in inflammatory events and correlates with the severity of inflammation.
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