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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Some YBa2Cu3O7-δ films and heterostructures prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) were analyzed in our laboratories by EPMA-EDX or WDX, RBS, SNMS and AES. It was found that in some cases the results of composition analysis can significantly deviate from each other. At least two main reasons for these deviations exist: the different lateral resolution and the application of different reference samples for the calibration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Faziale Spaltbildungen ; Kongenitale Herzfehler ; Echokardiographie ; Endokarditisprophylaxe ; Key words ; Facial clefts ; Congenital heart defects ; Echocardiography ; Endocarditis prophylaxis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Introduction: Children with facial clefts have an increased risk for further congenital malformations. The heart and most other organ systems may be also affected. The reported incidence of cardiac defects varies considerably. Methods and patients: In a prospective study during 6 years, 110 children, age 1 week to 4 years, were examined clinically and by colour-Doppler echocardiography. Results: The incidence of associated congenital heart defects (24,5%) was greater than in most previous reports. The incidence correlated also with the severity of the facial cleft. Syndromatic and premature children were prevalent (10% respectively 16%) and had more often cardiac defects (73% respectively 56%) than others. Most cardiac defects were ”simple”, and a half of them require prophylaxis for endocarditis. In 5 asymptomatic children cardiac defects requiring endocarditis prophylaxis were first detected by echocardiography. Conclusion: Repair of facial clefts begins usually in the first few months of life. If a cardiac defect is present, these infants have an increased perioperative risk for endocarditis. In order to detect such defects before operation, all these children should be examined by echocardiography, also when the clinical examination was uneventful.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Kinder mit fazialer Spaltbildung haben ein erhöhtes Risiko einer weiteren Fehlbildung. Das Herz und die meisten anderen Organsysteme können betroffen sein. Die Literaturangaben über die Inzidenz von Herzfehlern schwanken erheblich. Methode und Patienten: In einer prospektiven Studie über 6 Jahre wurden 110 Kinder mit Gesichtsspalten im Alter von 1 Woche bis 4 Jahren klinisch und farbdopplerechokardiographisch untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Inzidenz assoziierter Vitien betrug 24,5% und lag damit höher als in den meisten Literaturangaben; sie korrelierte auch mit der Schwere der Spaltbildung. Kinder mit Syndromen sowie Früh- und Mangelgeborene waren häufig (10% bzw. 16%) und hatten viel häufiger Herzfehler (73% bzw. 56%) als die übrigen Kinder. Es fanden sich überwiegend einfache Vitien, von denen die Hälfte eine Endokarditisprophylaxe benötigten. Bei 5 asymptomatischen Kindern wurden erstmals durch die Echokardiographie Herzfehler festgestellt, für die eine Endokarditisprophylaxe unabdingbar war. Schlußfolgerungen: Die operative Korrektur der Gesichtsspalten wird in den ersten Lebensmonaten begonnen. Wenn ein Vitium vorliegt, haben die Kinder ein erhöhtes perioperatives Endokarditisrisiko. Um ein Vitium vor der Operation zu erkennen, sollten diese Kinder in den ersten Lebenswochen, auch bei unauffälligem klinischem Befund, echokardiographisch untersucht werden.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0563
    Keywords: Key words Renal cell cancer • Vena cava inferior • Neoplastic extension • Thrombosis • Prognostic factors • Multiparameter analysis ; Schlüsselwörter Nierenzellkarzinom • Kavathrombus • Prognosefaktoren • Mehrparameteranalyse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Propagation eines Tumorthrombus in die V. cava inferior bzw. das rechte Atrium in Assoziation mit einem Nierenzellkarzinom wird bei 4–10 % der betroffenen Patienten beobachtet. Die Frage nach einer von anderen Tumorcharakteristika unabhängigen prognostischen Bedeutung des Kavathrombus für das Langzeitüberleben der Patienten wird trotz einer Reihe früherer Untersuchungen noch immer kontrovers diskutiert. Es wurde daher in der vorliegenden Untersuchung der klinische Verlauf von 53 Patienten mit Nierenzellkarzinom und Kavathrombus mit dem einer Kontrollgruppe, bestehend aus 47 Patienten mit Nierenzellkarzinom und ohne den Nachweis eines Kavathrombus, korreliert (Nachbeobachtungszeit: 1–154 Monate). Bei einem durchschnittlichen Langzeitüberleben von 32 bzw. 35 Monaten für Patienten mit Nierenzellkarzinom mit und ohne Nachweis eines Kavathrombus konnte uni- und multivariat weder für die Propagation eines Tumorthrombus in die V. cava inferior (p = 0,391) noch für die kraniale Thrombusausdehnung (p = 0,158) – auch im Falle einer rechtsatrialen Propagation – ein prognostischer Wert ermittelt werden.
    Notes: Summary The independent prognostic value of neoplastic extension of renal cell cancer (RCC) into the vena cava inferior has been the subject of several investigations reported to date. However, the use of vena cava thrombosis as an independent prognosticator of a patient's long-term survival is still debated. We have therefore correlated the clinical course of 53 patients with RCC and vena cava thrombosis with a control group consisting of 47 patients with renal cell tumors without vena cava thrombosis (follow-up: 1–154 months). The median long-term survival of patients with and without vena cava thrombosis was 32 and 35 months, respectively. Neither the propagation of the tumor into the vena cava (P = 0.391) nor the cranial extension of the thrombosis (P = 0.158) – even in case of propagation into the right atrium – could be identified as parameters of any prognostic value during univariate or multivariate statistical analysis.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 15 (1978), S. 297-301 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 33
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In a double-resonance experiment, the absorption of various CO2 laser lines by sulfur hexafluoride was measured, before and after the SF6 was pumped by a fixed frequency CO2 laser to a level of 5 quanta/molecule. The absorption is substantially shifted to longer wavelengths. But the short wavelength wing of the absorption band is not completely bleached. Instead a shoulder of several cm−1 width is left. This shoulder is probably important for the explanation of the infrared laser induced dissociation of SF6.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 66.70. + f
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the anisotropic thermal conductivity in pyrolytic graphite by thermoreflectance. A laser-heated circular spot on a surface perpendicular to the planes developed into an elliptical temperature distribution which was recorded by a raster scanning technique at modulation frequencies ranging from 600 Hz to 100 kHz. The ratio of in-plane and perpendicular thermal conductivity was determined by fitting the phase of the temperature data with an analytical model, and was found to decrease with increasing modulation frequency. Highest conductivity values were considerably smaller than previously published data based on steady-state measurements. The frequency dependence and additional features in the phase profiles at high frequencies are discussed in view of sample surface preparation and the local nature of the thermoreflectance measurement.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 42.65 H; 42.30; 07.07.D
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. In this article, we demonstrate the capability of a two-beam coupling photorefractive optical novelty filter of detecting changes in the amplitude or phase of optical images. These changes may either be continuous or discrete in time. The performance of the two-beam coupling novelty filter is investigated and expressions for the output contrast corresponding to phase and amplitude changes based on a novel, simple interference model of two-beam coupling are derived. These expressions are verified by experimental results on the novelty contrast, revealing that the amplitude contrast is not described correctly by the commonly accepted coupled-wave theory. The novelty filter was applied to the detection of temporally continuous phase changes provided by a gas flow and moving microscopic objects. A novel scheme for image subtraction is also demonstrated, showing the novelty filter’s ability to detect temporally discrete changes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: Dihetero[2.2]orthometacyclophane ; Dynamic NMR spectroscopy ; Conformational analysis ; Ring interconversion of 9-membered ring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die N,N′-Ditosyl-diaza[2.2]orthometacyclophane5a, b wurden aus N,N-Ditosylmetaphenylendiamin durch Umsetzung mit (Z)-1,4-Dichlorbuten bzw. 1,2-Bisbrommethylbenzol gewonnen. Tieftemperatur-NMR-Untersuchungen ergaben, daß5b als 1:1 Mischung einer Sessel- und einer Bootkonformation des gespanntenE,Z-Diazanonadienringes vorliegt. Bei Raumtemperatur ist die zugehörige Ringinversion schnell in der NMR-Zeitskala, die entsprechenden Protonen in beiden Konformeren, auch die aller CH2-Brückenprotonen, ergeben gemittelte Signale. Bei tiefen Temperaturen wird zunächst die Inversion der Methylenbrücken eingefroren (Signale für zweiexo- und zweiendo-CH2-Protonen werden erhalten, ΔG ≠ ca. 52 kJ mol−1). Bei weiterer Temperatursenkung können nach Einfrieren eines zweiten dynamischen Prozesses Sessel- und Bootkonformer anhand von getrennten Signalsätzen identifiziert werden (die freie Aktivierungsenthalpie für den zugehörigen Sessel-Boot-Flip beträgt ΔG ≠ ca. 43.5 kJ mol−1). Die Zuordnung der1H- und13C-NMR-Resonanzen wurde mit Hilfe von zweidimensionalen NMR-Experimenten gesichert.
    Notes: Summary The N,N′-ditosyl-diaza[2.2]orthometacyclophanes5a, b were synthesized from N,N-ditosyl-metaphenylenediamine by reaction with (Z)-1,4-dichlorobutene and 1,2-bis-bromomethylbenzene, respectively. Low temperature NMR studies showed that the compound5b exists as a 1:1 mixture of chair and boat form of the strained (E,Z)-diazanonadiene ring. At room temperature all corresponding resonances are averaged on the NMR time scale (including all four ethylene bridge protons). Going to lower temperatures, in a first step the methylene bridge inversion is frozen (giving twoexo H and twoendo H, ΔG ≠ ca. 52kJmol−1). In a second step the chair and boat form can be observed separately (ΔG ≠ ca. 43.5 kJ mol−1 for the chair/boat flip). The assignments were confirmed by 2D NMR experiments.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recent results demonstrate an emerging role for paclitaxel in patients with urothelial-tract cancer and in patients with testicular cancer. Yielding response rates in the range of 40–50% as a single agent, paclitaxel is one of the most active drugs in metastatic bladder cancer. Ongoing trials of paclitaxel combination chemotherapy with cisplatin or cisplatin and ifosfamide demonstrate substantial objective remission rates above 70% and, in addition, a high range of complete responses. Thus, paclitaxel appears to be an important drug when used as part of first-line combination chemotherapy for metastatic bladder cancer. Ongoing clinical trials focus on the combination of paclitaxel with cisplatin, ifosfamide, gemcytabine, and carboplatin. Furthermore, paclitaxel administration has been demonstrated to be easily applicable to patients with reduced renal function, requiring no dose reduction and producing no increase in toxicity. Future strategies will have to compare the most active paclitaxel combination regimen with first-line MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin) chemotherapy. Finally, the role of paclitaxel combination regimens needs to be explored in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting in patients with bladder cancer. In testicular cancer, paclitaxel has initially been tested in patients with cisplatin-refractory disease. Among 4 consecutive trials involving a total of 83 patients a response rate of 26% has been observed using dose schedules varying from 3-h to 24-h infusions and doses ranging from 175 to 250 mg/m2. The major toxicities of paclitaxel include neutropenia, neurotoxicity, and fatigue syndrome. Currently, combinations of paclitaxel with cisplatin ± ifosfamide are used as first- or second-line salvage therapy in patients with relapsed metastatic testicular cancer. The German Testicular Cancer Study Group uses a paclitaxel (Taxol, ifosfamide, cisplatin; TIP) combination regimen as salvage treatment. Following the TIP regimen and the application of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are harvested and the patients subsequently receive high-dose chemotherapy with PBSC rescue. Since only a few drugs have demonstrated substantial activity in cisplatin-refractory disease, paclitaxel will be used in early salvage strategies and, possibly, as first-line chemotherapy as a part of platinum-based combination regimens in patients with testicular cancer. Further trials confirming the important role of paclitaxel in this highly curable malignancy and a thorough investigation of its acute and long-term toxicity will be the future tasks.
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