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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Glutamate receptors ; Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; Human cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Specimens of human cerebral cortex were obtained during neurosurgical operations and studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, using antibodies to the metabotropic glutamate receptor subunit mGluR1a and the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2/3. A small number of non-pyramidal neuronal cell bodies were labelled for mGluR1a. Double immunolabelling with mGluR1a and GluR2/3 showed that most pyramidal cell bodies were labelled for GluR2/3 but not for mGluR1a. Despite the non-colocalisation of these two receptor subtypes in cell bodies, however, many dendrites and dendritic spines were double-labelled for mGluR1a and GluR2/3 at electron microscopy. As there is evidence that most neurons positive for GluR2/3 are pyramidal cells, this suggests that mGluR1a is present in dendrites of pyramidal neurons, despite absent or low levels of immunoreactivity in their cell bodies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: GluR1 ; GABA ; Electron microscopy ; Cerebral neocortex ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Specimens of human cerebral neocortex were obtained during neurosurgical operations and studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, using antibodies to the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Many GluR1-positive pyramidal neurons and fewer GluR1-positive nonpyramidal neurons were present in the cortex. Non-pyramidal neurons were more heavily labelled for GluR1 than pyramidal neurons. Most GABAergic neurons were labelled for GluR1. The white matter was unstained, except for occasional labelled neurons. This pattern of GluR1 immunostaining is similar to that in rat cerebral cortex, but is different from that in the hippocampus and amygdala, where large numbers of pyramidal or projection neurons, but few non-pyramidal or GABAergic neurons, were labelled for GluR1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words: Anthropometry – Caucasian women – Dietary calcium intake – Family history of osteoporosis – Physical activity – Ultrasound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: This study aimed to assess the factors that may influence the distribution and description of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and to identify specific criteria for diagnostic consideration when collecting BUA reference data. Two hundred Caucasian women (aged 20–79 years) without a history of atraumatic fractures or medicines known to affect bone metabolism were selected for this study. Medical and menstrual history, medication usage, family history of osteoporosis (FHO), physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL), dietary calcium intake, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption were obtained. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) was determined in the right foot using a new gel-coupled ultrasound system. BUA was significantly associated with age (p〈0.001), body weight (p〈0.001), level of physical activity (p = 0.024) and dietary calcium intake (p= 0.023). Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption and ADL were not associated with BUA (p〉0.05). There were no differences in BUA (p〉0.05) between those women who reported taking medications or had diseases (known to not affect bone metabolism), were using contraceptives, taking vitamin/mineral supplements and/or had traumatic fractures and their counterparts who did not report these characteristics. Premenopausal women with a FHO had significantly lower BUA values compared with those without a FHO (p= 0.013). When those participants with a FHO were removed from the sample, the peak BUA value was 1.1–4.4% higher and the variability (SD) was reduced by about 3.3–9.3% depending on which age range was used to define the peak BUA value. Consequently, an additional 4.5% of the population were classified as having a T-score 〈−2. Our results suggest that the impact on BUA of risk factors such as a FHO, body weight, physical activity and dietary calcium intake is similar to that on bone mineral density obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and thus provides further information on the comparability of quantitative ultrasound and DXA for assessment of risk of fracture. The criteria for calculating the T-score need further study to determine whether young adults with FHO should be included and what cutoff age range should be used in collecting peak values of quantitative ultrasound parameters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Hip fracture – Osteoporosis – Precision – Ultrasound attenuation – Ultrasound velocity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is now accepted as a useful tool in the management of osteoporosis. There are a variety of QUS devices clinically available with a number of differences among them, including their coupling methods, parameter calculation algorithms and sites of measurement. This study evaluated the abilities of six calcaneal QUS devices to discriminate between normal and hip-fractured subjects compared with the established method of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The short-term and mid-term precisions of these devices were also determined. Thirty-five women (mean age 74.5 ± 7.9 years) who had sustained a hip fracture within the past 3 years, and 35 age-matched controls (75.8 ± 5.6 years) were recruited. Ultrasound measurements were acquired using six ultrasound devices: three gel-coupled and three water-coupled devices. Bone mineral density was measured at the hip using DXA. Discrimination of fracture patients versus controls was assessed using logistic regression analysis (expressed as age- and BMI-adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation decrease with 95% confidence interval) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Measurement precision was standardized to the biological range (sCV). The sCV ranged from 3.14% to 5.5% for speed of sound (SOS) and from 2.45% to 6.01% for broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). The standardized medium-term precision ranged from 4.33% to 8.43% for SOS and from 2.77% to 6.91% for BUA. The pairwise Pearson correlation coefficients between different devices was highly significant (SOS, r= 0.79–0.93; BUA, r= 0.71–0.92). QUS variables correlated weakly, though significantly, with femoral BMD (SOS, r= 0.30–0.55; BUA, r= 0.35–0.61). The absolute BUA and SOS values varied among devices. The gel-coupled devices generally had a higher SOS than water-coupled devices. Bone mineral density (BMD) and BUA were weakly correlated with weight (r= 0.48–0.57 for BMD and r= 0.18–0.54 for BUA), whereas SOS was independent of weight. All the QUS devices gave similar, statistically significant hip fracture discrimination for both SOS and BUA measures. The odds ratios for SOS (2.1–2.8) and BUA (2.4–3.4) were comparable to those for femoral BMD (2.6–3.5), as were the area under the curve (SOS, 0.65–0.71; BUA, 0.62–0.71; BMD, 0.65–0.74) from ROC analysis. Within the limitation of the sample size all devices show similar diagnostic sensitivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Genetic analysis ; Molecular marker ; Quantitative trait locus (QTL) ; Epistasis ; Hybrid rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Photoperiod-sensitive genetic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice, with its male fertility regulated by photoperiod length, is very useful for hybrid rice development. However, breeding for new PSGMS lines has faced two major difficulties – the stability of male sterility and the reversibility of male fertility. In this study we assessed the genetic bases of stability of sterility and fertility reversibility using a molecular marker-based approach. A cross was made between two newly bred PSGMS lines: Peiai 64S, which has a stable sterility but is difficult to reverse to fertility, and 8902S, which has a unstable sterility but is easy to reverse to fertility. The fertility of the parents and of the F1 and F2 populations was repeatedly examined under 11 different long-day and short-day conditions. The genetic effects were assayed by interval mapping and two-way analyses of variance using the F2 data of 128 polymorphic loci representing all the 12 rice chromosomes. The analyses resolved a number of single-locus QTLs and two-locus interactions under both long-day and short day conditions. The interactions involved a large number of loci, most of which were not detectable on a single-locus basis. The results showed that the genetic bases of both stability of sterility and reversibility of fertility are the joint effects of the additive effects of the QTLs and additive-by-additive components of two-locus interactions. The implications of these findings in hybrid rice development are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Oryza sativa L. ; Genetic differentiation ; Classification of parental lines ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ; Genic interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  This study was intended to investigate the extent of genetic differentiation in parental lines of rice hybrids and to analyze the genetic basis underlying the fertility phenomenon in distant crosses. Two subsets of rice material (111 entries in total) were used, including 81 doubled-haploid (DH) lines and 30 Indica and Japonica rice varieties or lines (as a control). The DH lines was derived from a heterotic Indica/Japonica cross (Gui630/02428) by anther culture. The materials in the control represent a broad spectrum of the Asian cultivated rice gene pool including landraces, primitive cultivars, historically important cultivars, modern elite cultivars, super rice and parents of superior hybrids. In accordance with the NC II design, 57 out of the DH lines were test-crossed to two important wide compatibility lines: photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterile (PGMS) line N422s and thermo-sensitive genetic male sterile (TGMS) line Peiai64s. The F1s and their parents, 182 entries in total, were examined for the performance of seven traits in a replicated field trial. All the rice materials was surveyed for polymorphisms using 92 RFLP markers selected from two published molecular marker linkage maps. Genotypes of the F1 hybrids at the molecular-marker loci were deduced from the parental genotypes. The analysis showed that there were two types of genetic differentiation in the two subsets of rice material; that is, qualitative differentiation in the control and quantitative differentiation in the DH lines. In addition, favorable genic interactions (both intra- or inter-locus) contributed to better increase the fertility in hybrids of distant crosses through incorporation of a wide-compatibility line as the female parent. Favorable genic interactions can be applied in hybrid rice breeding programs by selecting parents with an appropriate extent of genetic differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Bone density – Hip fracture – Osteoporosis – Quantitative ultrasound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture increases in postmenopausal women with low hip bone mineral density (BMD). Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most commonly used technique for the assessment of bone status and provides good measurement precision. However, DXA affords little information about bone architecture. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) systems have been developed to evaluate bone status for assessment of fracture risk. Our study was designed to assess a new QUS system from Hologic, the Sahara; to compare it with a previous model, the Walker-Sonix UBA 575+; and to investigate whether it is able to discriminate between women with and without fracture. Using both ultrasound devices, the measurements were performed at the heels of 33 postmenopausal women who had recently sustained hip fracture. A control group of 35 age-matched postmenopausal women was recruited for comparison. The total, neck and trochanter femoral BMD values were assessed using DXA for both groups. QUS and DXA measurements were significantly lower in fractured patients (p〈0.005) than in the control group. The short-term, mid-term and standardized short-term precisions were used to evaluate the reproducibility of the two QUS systems. The Sahara showed a better standardized coefficient of variation for broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) than did the UBA 575+ (p〈0.001). The correlation of BUA and speed of sound (SOS) between the two QUS devices was highly significant, with an r value of 0.92 for BUA and 0.91 for SOS. However, the correlation between DXA and ultrasound parameters ranged from 0.28 to 0.44. We found that ultrasound measurements at the heel were significant discriminators of hip fractures with odds ratios (OR) ranging from 2.7 to 3.2. Even after adjusting the logistic regressions for total, neck or trochanter femoral BMD, QUS variables were still significant independent discriminators of hip fracture. The areas under the ROC curves of each ultrasound parameter ranged from 0.75 to 0.78, and compared very well with femoral neck BMD (p〉0.05). In conclusion, our study indicated that the calcaneal QUS variables, as measured by the Sahara system can discriminate hip fracture patients equally as well as hip DXA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone loss ; Chlorthalidone ; Clinical trial ; Thiazide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Employing a double-masked, prospective design, bone loss at three skeletal sites has been monitored among 113 postmenopausal women participating in a placebo-controlled trial of the thiazide-like diuretic chlorthalidone for treatment of systolic hypertension. The mean duration of chlorthalidone use was 2.6 years, at doses of 12.5–25 mg/day. Compared with placebo use, chlorthalidone use was associated with significant reductions in annual bone loss rates. Non-use of chlorthalidone was associated with bone loss at the calcaneus (−0.56% per year) and the proximal radius (−0.91% per year); borderline bone gain was observed at the distal radius (+0.39%). In contrast, chlorthalidone use was associated with bone gain at the calcaneus (+0.44% per year) and the distal radius (+1.51% per year); proximal radius bone loss was significantly reduced to −0.32% per year. The average increment for three appendicular sites was +0.9% per year. These data support a causal relationship between chlorthalidone use and reduced bone loss.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-3058
    Keywords: Key words: Ellipsoidal unit networks; Hierarchical diagnostic networks; Rotating machinery; Simultaneous diagnosis of multiple faults
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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