Key words: Anthropometry – Caucasian women – Dietary calcium intake – Family history of osteoporosis – Physical activity – Ultrasound
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the factors that may influence the distribution and description of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and to identify specific criteria for diagnostic consideration when collecting BUA reference data. Two hundred Caucasian women (aged 20–79 years) without a history of atraumatic fractures or medicines known to affect bone metabolism were selected for this study. Medical and menstrual history, medication usage, family history of osteoporosis (FHO), physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL), dietary calcium intake, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption were obtained. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) was determined in the right foot using a new gel-coupled ultrasound system. BUA was significantly associated with age (p〈0.001), body weight (p〈0.001), level of physical activity (p = 0.024) and dietary calcium intake (p= 0.023). Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption and ADL were not associated with BUA (p〉0.05). There were no differences in BUA (p〉0.05) between those women who reported taking medications or had diseases (known to not affect bone metabolism), were using contraceptives, taking vitamin/mineral supplements and/or had traumatic fractures and their counterparts who did not report these characteristics. Premenopausal women with a FHO had significantly lower BUA values compared with those without a FHO (p= 0.013). When those participants with a FHO were removed from the sample, the peak BUA value was 1.1–4.4% higher and the variability (SD) was reduced by about 3.3–9.3% depending on which age range was used to define the peak BUA value. Consequently, an additional 4.5% of the population were classified as having a T-score 〈−2. Our results suggest that the impact on BUA of risk factors such as a FHO, body weight, physical activity and dietary calcium intake is similar to that on bone mineral density obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and thus provides further information on the comparability of quantitative ultrasound and DXA for assessment of risk of fracture. The criteria for calculating the T-score need further study to determine whether young adults with FHO should be included and what cutoff age range should be used in collecting peak values of quantitative ultrasound parameters.
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